History: August 1

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August 1

10BC Birth: Claudius I, 4th Roman emperor (41-54 AD), will invade Britain in AD 43 and make it a province of Rome.

0126 Birth: Publius Helvius Pertinax, Roman emperor (193 AD).

0902 The Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.

1096 The Crusades: Crusaders under Peter the Hermit reach Constantinople.

1291 The Swiss communities of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden form an alliance that becomes known as the Swiss Confederation. The alliance is created to protect the communities against the imperial interests of the Austrian House of Habsburg. The anniversary of this founding has been celebrated as National Day in Switzerland since 1891, the 600th anniversary of the Swiss Confederation.

1464 Piero de Medici succeeds his father, Cosimo, as ruler of Florence.

1498 Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sets foot on the American mainland for the first time, at the Paria Peninsula in present-day Venezuela.

1619 The first black Americans (20) land at Jamestown, Virginia.

1664 The Turkish army is defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.

1689 James II's 15-week siege of Londonderry, Ireland, ends in failure.

1714 George Louis, Elector of Hanover, is named King George I (1714-1727) of Great Britain upon the death of Queen Anne.

1740 Rule Britannia is sung for the first time, in a show at Cliveden for the Prince of Wales's daughter's third birthday.

1744 Birth: Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, French naturalist, believed in the inheritance of acquired traits.

1759 British and Hanoverian armies defeat the French at the Battle of Minden, Germany.

1770 Birth: William Clark, in Charlottsville, Virginia, American explorer, Lewis and Clark Expedition. Died in 1838.

1774 Joseph Priestley, the British Presbyterian minister and chemist, identifies a gas which he calls 'dephlogisticated air', later known as oxygen.

1778 The World's first savings bank is opened in Hamburg, Germany.

1779 Birth: Francis Scott Key, American composer, attorney, poet, social worker, and composer of the "Star-Spangled Banner."

1789 US Customs begins enforcing the Tariff Act.

1790 The first enumeration by the US Census Bureau is completed. It shows a population of 3,939,326 located in 16 states and the Ohio territory. Virginia is the most populous state with 747,610 inhabitants. The census compilation cost $44,377.

1791 Robert Carter III, a Colonial Virginia plantation owner, frees all 500 of his slaves in the largest private emancipation in US history.

1793 France becomes the first country to use the metric system of weights and measures, a byproduct of the French Revolution.

1798 The British fleet under Lord Nelson defeats the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile, at Aboukir Bay, Egypt, thus thwarting Napoleon's conquest of the Middle East.

1801 Fighting Americas first war against terror, the American schooner Enterprise captures the Barbary cruiser Tripoli. "When the merchantmen of the young American republic, now forfeit of the Royal Navy’s formidable protection, came to sail Mediterranean waters, they too had to pay tribute to Yusuf Karmali, the Bey of Tripoli, and to ransom, at great cost and with great difficulty, their merchant seamen citizens taken as hostages and slaves by the pirate kings. In some cases, it took 12 years to raise enough money to free the men, and sometimes they died in captivity. Objectively, the Americans lost few ships to the pirates. But the indignity rankled. Moreover, whereas Yusuf Bey had been content with an annual tribute of $56,000, realizing the fledgling republic had no means of protecting their trade, he squeezed the Americans ever harder. By the time Thomas Jefferson came to be president of the United States, the US was paying $2-million a year, or a fifth of its income, as tribute to the Bey. By some accounts, it may even have been 30% of the Government’s income. Even that did not satisfy the Bey and his compatriots, who reveled in humiliating the Americans.  President Jefferson decided this extortion had to stop. Accordingly, starting in 1801, four successive squadrons of US Navy warships set out annually for Tripoli, to fight the pirates and the Bey..."

1808 British troops land on Portuguese soil to push back Napoleon's French forces who had occupied the whole of the Iberian peninsular.

1819 Birth: Herman Melville, author. (Moby Dick, Billy Budd). Died in 1891.

1818 Birth: Maria Mitchell, the first female professional astronomer and the first women to be elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

1827 A new law for military conscription is promulgated in Russia. Jewish boys as young as twelve are drafted and forced to serve 25 years in the army and are forbidden to speak Yiddish or practice their religion.

1834 Slavery is outlawed in the British empire with an emancipation bill. A combination of slave revolts, humanitarian concerns, and a growing industrialisation in Great Britain led to the passage of the Abolition Act. An estimated 770,280 slaves become free.

1843 Born: Robert Todd Lincoln, son of US President Abraham Lincoln. He was once rescued from a train accident by Edwin Booth, the brother of the man who assassinated President Lincoln. Died in 1891.

1863 US Civil War: Cavalry action near Brandy Station brings an end to the Gettysburg Campaign.

1864 US Civil War: Union General Ulysses S. Grant gives General Philip H. Sheridan the mission of clearing the Shenandoah Valley of Confederate forces. After nearly 10 months of trench warfare, Confederate resistance at Petersburg, Virginia, suddenly collapses.

1867 Reconstruction: Blacks vote for the first time in a state election, in Tennessee.

1869 The first voyage down the Colorado River takes place.

1872 The first long-distance gas pipeline in the US is completed. Designed for natural gas, the two-inch pipe runs five miles from Newton Wells to Titusville, Pennsylvania. Note: Titusville is also known as the site of the first oil well every dug, a well that still yields to this day.

1873 Inventor Andrew S. Hallidie and his Clay Street Hill Railroad Company successfully test a cable car designed for the city of San Francisco.

1876 Colorado becomes the 38th United State.

1880 Sir Frederick Roberts frees the British Afghanistan garrison of Kandahar from Afghan rebels.

1881 A US Quarantine Station is authorised for Angel Island, San Francisco Bay.

1889 Birth: Dr. John F. Mahoney, will develop pencillin treatment of syphillis.

1893 A machine for making Shredded wheat is patented by Henry Perky and William Ford.

1894 The first Sino-Japanese War erupts over control of Korea.

1894 George Samuelson and Frank Harbo arrive in England after completing a 3,000-mile journey across the Atlantic Ocean in a rowboat. (See June 6)

1901 Burial is prohibited within San Francisco city limits.

1903 The first coast-to-coast automobile trip across America is completed from San Francisco to New York.

1907 The U.S. Army establishes an aeronautical division that later becomes the U.S. Air Force. This Aeronautical Division is an addition to the Army Signals Corps.

1914 WW1: Fighting begins on the German-Russian frontier and Germany declares war on Russia.

1918 WW1: Allied warships approach the mouth of the North Dvina River and attack Soviet coastal defense batteries as Allied aircraft fly over Archangel. (Polyakov)

1923 Hitler speaks in Munich. "There are two things which can unite men: common ideals and common criminality. We have inscribed upon our banner the great Germanic ideal and for that ideal we will fight to the last drop of our blood. We National Socialists have realized that from the international cesspool of infamy, from the Berlin of today, nothing can come to save the Fatherland. We know that two things alone will save us..."

1929 Aug 1-4 Hitler attends the Fourth Party Rally in Nuremberg. (Maser)

1931 Birth: Tom Wilson, Ziggy cartoonist.

1931 Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer becomes lecturer in Theology at the University of Berlin. In these two years in Berlin, Bonhoeffer attends a number of ecumenical conferences and at one meets the Christian theologian Rev. George Bell from England.

1933 Holocaust: A Nazi decree prohibits non-Jewish doctors from professional contact with Jewish physicians.

1934 German President Hindenburg dies of natural causes. Hitler quickly proclaims himself both Chancellor and Fuehrer of the German People.

1934 The Lithuanian government suppresses all Jewish newspapers.

1936 The Nazi Olympics: The 1936 Olympic Games begin in Berlin. For propaganda reasons, most anti-Jewish measures are avoided for the duration of the games, and slogans are removed from the streets.

1936 The Messerschmitt ME-109, a highly successful single-seat fighter, is first publically displayed at the 1936 Olympic games in Berlin. It is subsequently tested and proven during the Spanish Civil War.

1936 Spanish Civil War: France declares a policy of non-intervention.

1939 The U.S. Congress passes a bill outlawing the use of uniforms and firearms by any organization conflicting with the American government. (Edelheit)

1940 WW2: Hitler issues Directive #17 for the invasion of Britain.

1940 The Duke of Windsor and his wife depart Lisbon for the Bahamas aboard the steamship Excalibur. Windsor becomes Governor of the Bahamas.

1940 The first book written by 23-year-old John Fitzgerald Kennedy is published: Why England Slept. Later, Kennedy's Profiles in Courage will become a best-seller.

1941 WW2: Parade magazine calls it "...the Army's most intriguing new gadget...a tiny truck which can do practically everything". The US Army had been looking for a fast, lightweight all-terrain vehicle, but the search did not grow urgent until early 1940. At this time, the Axis powers had begun to score victories in Europe and Northern Africa, intensifying the Allies' need for an all-terrain vehicle. The US Army issued a challenge to automotive companies, requesting a working prototype, fit to army specifications, in just forty-nine days. Willy's Truck Company was the first to successfully answer the Army's call, and the new little truck was christened "the Jeep". General Dwight D. Eisenhower said that America could not have won World War II without it. Parade is so enthusiastic about the Jeep, that, on this day, it devotes three full pages to a feature on the vehicle.

1941 Holocaust: In the five weeks since the German invasion, the number of Jews killed exceeds the total number killed in the previous eight years of Nazi rule.

1941 Holocaust: Reinhardt Heydrich informs Heinrich Himmler that "It may be safely assumed that in the future there will be no more Jews in the annexed eastern territories." (Apparatus)

1941 WW2: Britain severs relations with Finland, which the Germans are using as a base for their invasion.

1941 WW2: The Grumman TBF Avenger torpedo plane makes its first flight.

1942 WW2: Ensign Henry C. White, while flying a J4F Widgeon plane, sinks U-166 as it approachs the Mississippi River, the first U-boat sunk by the US Coast Guard.

1943 Diary of Leon Gladun: Finally I received my star.

1943 WW2: More than 175 American B-24 Liberators) bomb the Ploesti oilfields in Romania, a 2,400-mile round trip from Libya. This low-level attack severely damages the major oil center of Hitler's Europe, but the U.S. Ninth Air Force loses 54 planes during the raid.

1943 WW2: A groundbreaking ceremony takes place in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the first uranium 235 plant. (Uranium 235 was needed to build the A-bomb.) The uranium manufacturing facility cost $280,000,000 to build and is completed in the summer of 1944.

1943 Race-related rioting erupts in New York's Harlem section, resulting in several deaths.

1944 Holocaust: In Pisa, Italy, Germans murder Catholic philanthropis Pardo-Roques and six Jews he has been sheltering. (Atlas)

1944 The Warsaw Uprising: The Polish uprising in Warsaw, generally known as the Warsaw Uprising, is begun by the underground anti-German resistance movement, as elements of the Soviet army approach the city. The Germans kill tens of thousands of Poles while the Soviet army remains inactive at the city gates until October 2, at which point the rebellion collapses. 42,000 AK soldiers and civilians attack the Germans, but only 2,500 are properly armed while the Germans have 16,000 well-armed troops who will be strengthened. The Warsaw Uprising is led by anti-Communist, General Tadeusz Komorowski, and supported by the Polish government-in-exile in London.

1944 Holocaust: 13-year-old Anne Frank makes the last entry in her diary; a diary she had kept for two years while hiding with her family to escape Nazi deportation to a concentration camp. Three days later the Grune Polizei raid the secret annex in Amsterdam, Holland, where the Jewish family is in hiding. Anne will die in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp at the age of 15.

1950 Korea: Lead elements of the US 2nd Infantry Division arrive in Korea from the United States.

1953 The first aluminum-faced building, the Alcoa (Aluminum Corporation of America) Building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is completed. It is the first of its type in America. .

1957 The North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) is created by the United States and Canada.

1958 After 26 years at 3 cents, the cost of mailing a first-class letter in the United States goes up to 4 cents.

1962 Ghana's president Kwame Nkrumah escapes an assassination attempt when a hand grenade is thrown into a crowd greeting him.

1966 Yakubu Gowon assumes power in Nigeria following an army coup.

1969 The US Mariner spacecraft transmits the first pictures of Mars to Earth.

1975 The Helsinki accords pledge the signatory nations to respect human rights.

1976 Trinidad and Tobago become an independent republic within the British Commonwealth.

1976 The 21st Olympic Games in Montreal, the most expensive and controversial in Olympic history, end on this date. Thirty-two nations withdraw from the games, six East European athletes defect to Canada, a Soviet athlete is dismissed for cheating, three other participants are disqualified for steroid use, and a Soviet sprinter reports a death threat.

1977 Death: Francis Gary Powers, pilot of a U-2 pilot spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960, is killed when his weather helicopter crashes in Los Angeles.

1989 The Revolutionary Justice Organization, a pro-Iranian group in Lebanon which had threatened to kill American hostage Joseph Cicippio, extends its deadline a day after another group releases a videotape showing a body said to be that of hostage William R. Higgins.

1990 A five-day coup attempt in Trinidad and Tobago ends with the surrender of the Black Muslim rebels and the release of their captives, Prime Minister Arthur Robinson and dozens of other hostages,

1990 Iraq pulls out of talks with Kuwait.

1991 Israel agrees to attend a Middle East Peace conference, but only if the PLO is excluded as well as Palestinians from East Jerusalem.

1994 German President Roman Herzog apologizes for the suffering his nation caused Poland in WW2.

1994 Haiti declares a state of siege following passage of a United Nations (UN) Security Council resolution authorising an invasion of the Caribbean nation.


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