History: August 27

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August 27

551BC Birth: Confucius (K'ung Fu-tzu), philosopher. Died in 479BC.

055BC On day two of Julius Caesar's invasion of England, ten thousand men of the 7th and 10th Roman legions land in Deal.

1576 Death: Titan, Italian artist.

1626 The Thirty Years War: A force of Imperialists under Count Tilly decisively defeat a force of Germans and Danes under Christian IV at the battle of Lutter am Barenberge in Germany.

1660 Following England's Restoration, books by poet John Milton are ordered burned because of his attacks on the King Charles II. Milton had advocated an elder-ruled (Presbyterian) church government over that of bishop-ruled (Episcopal).

1664 Nieuw Amsterdam becomes New York as 300 English soldiers under Colonel Mathias Nicolls take the town from the Dutch under orders from Charles II. The town is renamed after the King's brother James, Duke of York.

1665 Ye Bare and Ye Cubb became the first play performed in North America in Acomac, Virginia.

1667 The earliest recorded hurricane in US occurs in Jamestown, Virginia.

1770 Birth: Georg Wilhelm F. Hegel, German idealist philosopher, inventor (dialectic).

1776 US Revolutionary War: The  British continue to drive the Americans back at the Battle of Long Island, New York.

1793 French Revolution: Maximilien Robespierre is elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.

1809 Birth: 15th US Vice President (R) (1861-1865) Hannibal Hamlin, at Paris Hill, Oxford County, Maine; attended the district schools and Hebron Academy; took charge of the family farm and worked as a surveyor, compositor in a printing office, and school teacher; studied law; admitted to the bar in 1833 and practiced in Hampden, Penobscot County, until 1848; member, State house of representatives 1836-1841, 1847, and served as speaker in 1837, 1839, and 1840; unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election in 1840 to the Twenty-seventh Congress; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses (March 4, 1843-March 3, 1847); chairman, Committee on Elections (Twenty-ninth Congress); unsuccessful Democratic candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1846; elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate in 1848 by the anti-slavery wing of the Democratic party to fill the vacancy caused by the death of John Fairfield; reelected in 1850 and served from June 8, 1848, to January 7, 1857, when he resigned to become Governor; chairman, Committee on Commerce (Thirty-first through Thirty-fourth Congresses); Committee on Printing (Thirty-second Congress); left the Democratic Party in 1856; Governor of Maine January to February 1857, when he resigned; elected to the United States Senate as a Republican and served from March 4, 1857, until his resignation, effective January 17, 1861, to become vice president; elected Vice President of the United States on the ticket with Abraham Lincoln 1861-1865; appointed collector of the port of Boston in 1865 but resigned in 1866; again elected to the United States Senate in 1869; reelected in 1875 and served from March 4, 1869, until March 3, 1881; was not a candidate for renomination; chairman, Committee on the District of Columbia (Forty-first Congress), Committee on Manufactures (Forty-second Congress), Committee on Mines and Mining (Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses), Committee on Post Office and Post Roads (Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses), Committee on Foreign Relations (Forty-fifth Congress); United States Minister to Spain from 1881 to 1882, when he resigned; devoted the remainder of his life to agricultural pursuits; died in Bangor, Maine, July 4, 1891; interment in Mount Hope Cemetery.

1813 Napoleon with a force of 130,000 defeats a superior allied force of 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians at the battle of Dresden.

1828 Uruguay is formally proclaimed independent during preliminary talks between Brazil and Argentina.

1840 Death: William Kneass, 3rd US chief engraver (1824-40), died in office. Above is his Seated Liberty Dime.

1850 Birth: Margaret Hungerford, author. Died in 1897.

1858 The first cabled news dispatch is sent to, and published by, The New York Sun newspaper. The story is about China meeting the peace demands of England and France.

1859 Retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake strikes oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania, becoming the first person to successfully drill oil from the earth. From Pennsylvania, oil production spread West to Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and finally to Texas and California. Drake found the oil at a depth of 69 ft (23 m). Note: The well is still in operation, pumping oil from the ground, to this very day.

1861 US Civil War: Union troops make an amphibious landing at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.

1862 US Civil War: As the Second Battle of Bull Run rages, Confederate soldiers attack Loudoun County, Virginia.

1865 Birth: Charles Gates Dawes, 30th US Vice President. Charles Dawes came to Lincoln, Nebraska at the age of 21 and spent eight years in the Capital city as a practicing attorney before moving to Evanston, Illinois, where he entered business. During his tenure in Lincoln he became a close friend of John J. Pershing who was on the ROTC staff at the University of Nebraska. This acquaintanceship was to prove profitable in later years. Due to his tremendous success in the business world he became influential in the fields of banking and finance. This achievement led to his first major position of public service, Comptroller of Currency under President McKinley in 1897. He held this post until 1902 when he founded the Central Trust Company of Illinois. In 1917, Mr. Dawes joined the Army and was given a commission as Major in the engineers. He was rapidly promoted to serving as purchasing agent for the American Expeditionary Force in France under the direct command of General John J. Pershing. After the war, General Dawes served as the first Director of the Budget under President Harding in 1921. And here is the rest of his life in a more summarized form: 1923 Authored the Dawes Plan for Reparations which brought about the economic stability of Europe following World War I; 1924 Elected Vice President of the United States serving under President Coolidge; 1925 Awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace as the result of his Dawes Plan for Reparations; 1929 Appointed as Ambassador to Great Britain during the Hoover administration; 1932 Appointed the first chairman of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation; President and Chairman of the Board of the City National Bank of Chicago until his death in 1951.

1877 Birth: Charles Rolls, English car maker.

1879 Death: Sir Rowland Hill, introduced postage stamps, aged 84.

1881 New York state's 'Pure Food Law' goes into effect to prevent 'the adulteration of food or drugs'.

1883 The most powerful volcanic eruption in recorded history occurs on Krakatau, a small, uninhabited island located west of Sumatra in Indonesia. (Despite the movie title to the contrary, Krakatoa is actually west of Java.) Volcanic activity began on Krakatau on 20 May, and on 26 August Krakatau began to erupt violently. The next day, four giant explosions occurred, the third of which blew away the northern two-thirds of the island, spewing five cubic miles of earth into the air. The resultant cataclysmic explosion has been considered one of the most powerful in recorded history. The island exploded with the force of 100 megatons (the Hiroshima bomb was about 20 kilotons). The eruption generated tsunami waves that reached speeds of 400 mph (640 kph) and 120-foot high, that killed 36,000 people (both on the island itself and from the resulting tidal waves that obliterated 163 villages on the shores of nearby Java and Sumatra) and caused oceanic and atmospheric changes over a period of many years. The explosions could be heard more than 2,000 miles away in Australia, ash was propelled to a height of 50 miles. The fine dust from the explosion drifted around the earth, causing spectacular sunsets and forming an atmospheric veil that lowered world temperatures by a degree. In addition to Krakatau, which is still active, Indonesia has another 130 active volcanoes, the most of any country in the world.

1889 Charles G. Conn of Elkhart, Indiana patents the metal clarinet. More than 100 years later, the name, Conn, still represents one of the most popular musical instrument names - especially for clarinets.

1896 Birth: Karl Haushofer, Bavarian general and geopolitician who became closely associated with Rudolf Hess and, through him, Hitler. Haushofer had a lifelong interest in magic and mysticism. His doctrine of Liebensraum (Germany's right to living space in the East) became a cornerstone of Nazi ideology. Throughout the 1920s and 30s, he served as one of Hitler's most trusted political advisors. Haushofer's influence declined sharply during the war and he committed suicide in 1946 in the traditional Japanese manner.

1894 The United States congress passes an income tax law as part of a general tariff act, but it is later found unconstitutional.

1896 Zanzibar looses to England in a 38 minute war (9.02am to 9.40am).

1899 Birth: C. S. Forester, in England, historical novelist, created Horatio Hornblower.

1908 Birth: Lyndon B. Johnson.

1910 Edison, in his New Jersey laboratory, demonstrates the first 'talking' pictures utilizing his phonograph in tandem with his pre-film movie projector.

1910 Birth: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu.

1912 Tarzan of the Apes, by writer Edgar Rice Burroughs, is published as a magazine serial. Note: Burroughs had requested the publishers to utilize the pen name 'Normal Bean' for the work, but it came out 'Norman Bean,' the name much of Burroughs's early works bore.

1913 In the first aerobatic maneuver in an airplane, Lieutenant Peter Nestrov, of the Imperial Russian Air Service, performs a loop in a monoplane at Kiev.

1914 WW1: At Le Cateau French's BEF fights off a double envelopment by the full strength of Kluck's army. The survivors successfully disengaged at nightfall.

1916 WW1: The Romanian government, impressed by the early success of the Brusilov Offensive, declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.

1916 WW1: The Allied-Serbian forces in the Balkans are driven back to the Struma River line.

1918 Dr. Joseph L. Johnson is named US minister to Liberia.

1918 The Austrian DAP, led by Walter Riehl, changes its name to the German National Socialist Worker's Party (DNSAP) at a meeting in Vienna. (Forgotten Nazis)

1921 Prescott Bush marries Dorothy Walker, daughter of George Herbert Walker.

1922 Grigorij Bostunic emigrates to Germany and in 1924 changes his name to Gregor Schwartz-Bostunitsch.

1923 Hitler and Walter Riehl of the Austrian DNSAP split over strategy and tactics.

1927 Parks College, America's oldest aviation school, opens.

1928 The Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact is signed in Paris. Its signatories renounce aggressive war, and war as an instrument of national policy, but no sanctions are provided for violations. Note: The idea of the pact grew out of a request by the French foreign minister Aristide Briand that the United States make a nonaggression pact with France, in case the Germans restarted their military expansionism. US secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg, decided to expand that request into a multination pact that would ban war under international law. After the initial signing, the first such ceremony to be captured on film, nearly every country on earth endorsed the pact. There were two problems with the pact. The first was that it was not stated how the pact would be enforced should there be violations. The second was that it allowed for many qualifications (or excuses), such as self-defense or military alliance (helping other countries in war out of friendship and protection).

1932 John M. Miller, performing at the National Air Races in Cleveland, Ohio, dazzles a large crowd as he does a perfect loop-the-loop in his autogyro.

1938 At a poetry reading by Archibald MacLeish, another poet, in a fit of jealousy, sets fire to some papers in order to disrupt the recital. Who can tell me who that jealous poet was? Hint: He is a deceased US Poet Laureate associated with the administration of a recent thread.

1938 General Ludwig Beck, the top Wehrmacht general, resigns in disagreement over Hitler's aggressive foreign policy in general, and Czechoslovakian policy in particular, which he believes will lead to a war Germany cannot possibly win. He encourages those of his peers who are like-minded, and their are many, to join him, but none do. Note: Beck will ultimately emerge as the leader of the anti-Hitler resistance.

1939 -05: Italian Foreign Minister Ciano recommends British acceptance of Hitler's latest offer.

1939 -05: The British Cabinet learns from Lord Halifax of "Mr D" (Birger Dahlerus) and his efforts on the Nazis behalf. Dahlerus arrives back in Berlin about midnight.

1939 -05: Polish Foreign Minister Beck agrees to consider an exchange of population between predominantly German and predominantly Polish areas.

1939 The German aircraft Heinkel HE-178, the world's first jet-propelled airplane, makes its maiden flight in north Germany piloted by Erich Warsitz. The experimental plane reaches a speed of 375 mph (700 kph).

The engine used by the plane is designed by German physicist Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain. Von Ohain will go on to live to the US in 1947.

1940 WW2: Caproni-Campini CC-2, experimental jet plane, makes its maiden flight in Milan.

1941 WW2: The Iranian government resigns two days after a joint invasion by GB and the USSR.

1941 WW2: More than 14,000 Jewish refugees, who had fled to Hungary and Ruthenia in 1938 and 1939 from Germany, Austria, Poland and Slovakia, before being subsequently deported to Kamenets Podolsk in the Ukraine, are killed by heavily armed SS units with Ukrainian militia support. They are marched into a series of bomb craters and mowed down by machine-gun fire. Many are buried alive.(Atlas)

1941 Those Vichy French: Pierre Laval and a prominent pro-German newspaper editor are shot and wounded by a young member of the resistance. The Vichy government begins rounding up its opponents.

1941 WW2: The Prime Minister of Japan, Fumimaro Konoye, issues an invitation for a meeting with FDR.

1945 WW2: The Allied fleets anchor in Tokyo Bay.

1945 B-29 Superfortress bombers begin to dropping supplies into Allied prisoner of war camps in China.

1946 France and Laos conclude an agreement establishing a kingdom under French domination.

1950 General Foods blacklists Jean Muir of the Aldrich Family as a communist.

1963 Death: W. E. B. Du Bois, scholar, founder (NAACP), aged 95 in Accra, Ghana.

1963 The Nam: Cambodia severs ties with South Vietnam.

1972 The Nam: North Vietnam's major port at Haiphong sees its first bombings from US warplanes.

1975 Death: Haile Selassie, deposed Ethiopian emperor, aged 83.

1979 British war hero Lord Louis Mountbatten is killed off the coast of Ireland in a boat explosion claimed by the Irish Republican Army.

1981 Divers, probing the wreckage of the luxury cruise ship Andrea Doria, recover two safes from the purser's office. Note: The Andrea Doria sank in a collision with the Swedish liner Stockholm in 1956.

1982 Soyuz T-7 returns to Earth.

1984 US President Ronald Reagan announces that the first citizen to go into space will be a teacher. The teacher that is eventually chosen is Christa McAuliffe. (See Jan 28)

1985 The 20th Space Shuttle Mission, Discovery 6 , is launched.

1985 US Defense Secretary Weinberger cancels the Army's $1.8 billion 'Sergeant York' weapon system, declaring it ineffective.

1989 Chuck Berry performs his tune Johnny B. Goode, complete with the duck walk, for NASA staff in celebration of Voyager 2's encounter with the planet Neptune.

1990 52 Americans reach Turkey after leaving Iraq, but three young American men are detained by the Iraqis.

1990 The US State Department orders the expulsion of 36 Iraqi diplomats.

1991 The Soviet republic of Moldavia declares its independence. Meanwhile, as the Soviet Empire continues to collapse, the European Community recognizes Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as independent nations.

1992 Serbian leaders at the Yugoslav peace conference pledge to close the prisoner-of-war camps, end 'ethnic cleansing,' and work toward peace.

1992 Canada's Supreme Court strikes down as unconstitutional a law that would have prevented a man from claiming the Nazi Holocaust is a hoax.

1992 An international conference on former Yugoslavia ends in London with a Bosnian Serb agreement to give up control of their heavy weapons.

1992 The UN Security Council suspends two-and-a-half-month-old economic sanctions against Haiti to spur the country's return to democracy.

1996 California Governor Pete Wilson signs an order that would halt state benefits to illegal immigrants.

1995 Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization sign an agreement in Cairo to expand Palestinian autonomy from Gaza to the West Bank.

1997 Israel lifts a month-long blockade of Bethlehem that was imposed after a suicide bombing on July 30th that killed 16 people.

1997 The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists give a name to a part of the female body that they'd previously neglected to label: The Intermammary Sulcus. Who can tell me what that is?

1997 Former Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy is charged with seeking and accepting more than $35,000 in trips, sports tickets and favors from companies that did business with his agency.

1998 Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-'Owhali appears in a US Federal Court in New York City to face charges of bombing attacks at the US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. He is one of two suspects released to the US by Kenya. 

1999 Two Russian cosmonauts and a French astronaut leave Mir to return to Earth, leaving the orbiting Russian space station unmanned for the first time in 13 years.

2001 The US military announces that an Air Force RQ-1B "Predator" aircraft is lost over Iraq. It is reported that the unmanned aircraft 'may have crashed or been shot down.'

2001 Work begins on the future site of a World War II memorial on the US capital's historic national Mall. The site is between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial.

2002 A leading member of the Iraqi opposition says he believes the US is committed to ousting Saddam Hussein.



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