History: December 9

December 9

0536 Having captured Naples earlier in the year, Belisarius takes Rome on Ostrogoten.

0656 Battle of Kameel: Kalief Al ibn Abu Talib beats back a rebellion.

1165 Death: Malcolm IV, King of Scotland (1153-65), at 24. He is succeeded by his younger brother, William I the Lion.

1212 Frederik II crowns himself Roman Catholic king.

1392 Birth: Peter, Prince-Regent of Portugal, writer; Virtuosa Benfeitoria.

1437 Death: Sigismund, German Emperor, king of Hungary/Bohemia, at 70.

1516 Birth: Edwin Sandys, English statesman; a founder of the Virginia colony.

1570 Geuzen under Herman de Ruyter, occupies Loevestein.

1571 Birth: Adrian A. Metius, Dutch mathematician, fort architect.

1594 Birth: Gustavus II Adolphus, king who will make Sweden a major power (1611-32).

1608 Birth: John Milton, in London, English poet, civil rights activist, puritan; Paradise Lost, Samson Agonistes.

1625 The Treaty of The Hague is signed, under which England and the Netherlands agree to subsidize Christian IV of Denmark in his campaign in Germany. (Bradley)

1625 Death: Ubbo Emmius (van Embden), Frisian humanist, historian, at 78.

1636 Death: Giovanni B. Aleotti, Italian writer, theater architect, at about 90.

1640 Settler Hugh Bewitt is banished from the Massachusetts colony when he declares himself to be free of 'original sin.'  (Bradley)

1641 Death: Anthonie 'Antoon' van Dyck, Flemish painter, at 42.

1658 Dutch troops occupy the harbor city of Quilon (Coilan), India.

1674 Death: Edward Hyde, first earl of Clarendon, English Prime Minister (1660-67), at 65.

1688 King James II's wife and son flee England for France.

1717 Birth: Johann J. Winckelmann, German archaeologist; History of Ancient Art.

1738 All Jews are expelled from Breslau, Silesia.

1742 Birth: Carl W. Scheele, in Uppsala, Sweden, pharmacist, chemist; will develop lemon acid.

1747 England and the Netherlands sign a military treaty.

1767 Death: Benedetto Alfieri, Italian architect; San Giovanni Battista.

1788 George Washington sells his race horse, Magnolia, to Colonel Henry Lee.

1793 Noah Webster establishes The American Minerva, New York's first daily newspaper.

1805 Comet 3D/1805 V1, known as Biela, approaches to within 0.0366 AU's of Earth.

1809 Birth: William Barret Travis; will command the Texas troops at the battle of the Alamo.

1819 Death: Ann C. Coleman, fiancee of President Buchanan, of suicide.

1824 Peruvian War of Independence: 9,300 Spaniards under Laserna are defeated by Peruvian Patriots led by Sucre at the battle of Ayacucho (Candorcangui); the victory will lead to Peru's independence. (Bradley)

1840 Scottish missionary explorer David Livingstone, at 27, sets sail on his first journey to Africa.

1842 Birth: Pjotr A. Kopotkin, Russian ruler, anarchist.

1843 Birth: P. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu, French economist; Economiste Français.

1848 Birth: Joel Chandler Harris, US journalist, author of the Uncle Remus stories.

1861 US Civil War: The US Senate approves the establishment of a committee that will become the Joint Committee on the Conduct of War.

1863 US Civil War: Major General John G. Foster replaces Major General Ambrose E. Burnside as Commander of the Department of Ohio.

1867 The capital of the Colorado Territory is moved from Golden to Denver.

1868 Birth: Fritz Haber, German phycist-chemist (Nobel 1918).

1868 William Ewart Gladstone becomes Prime Minister for the first of his four terms of office.

1869 The Noble Order of Knights of Labor is founded, in Philadelphia.

1872 P.B.S. Pinchback becomes the first African-American governor of Louisiana.

1873 Birth: Antoine Pompe, Belgian architect.

1878 Birth: Géza Révész, Hungarian-Dutch psychologist; Talent & Genius.

1878 Joseph Pulitzer buys the St. Louis Dispatch for $2,500.

1883 Birth: Alexander Papagos, Greek Fieldmarshal.

1884 Levant Richardson patents the ball-bearing skate.

1889 President Harrison visits the opening of Chicago Auditorium.

1900 Boer War: The Russian czar rejects Boer Paul Kruger's pleas for aid in South Africa against the British.

1903 The Norwegian parliament votes unanimously for female suffrage.

1904 Birth: Roger Wolcott Sperry, physicist.

1905 An Act for the Separation of Church and State becomes law in France, rescinding Napoleon's Concordat of 1801. The new law guarantees freedom of conscience, but also severs all religious groups of any further economic support by the national government. (Bradley)

1905 Salome, a one-act opera by Richard Strauss from the story by Oscar Wilde, has its first performance in Dresden, Germany, and is immediately condemned as obscene. (Bradley)

1906 Birth: Grace Murray Hopper, US Navy Rear Admiral, computer developer.

1906 The New York American reports that Belgian King Leopold II had bribed the US Senate commission on the Congo.

1907 Birth: Noel Walton Bott, engineer.

1908 A child labor bill passes in the German Reichstag, forbidding work for children under the age of 13.

1909 The first US monoplane is flown; by Henry W. Walden, over Long Island, New York.

1910 French troops occupy the Morrocan harbor city of Agadir.

1910 Birth: Dick Elffers, Dutch graphic artist, painter.

1910 Birth: Stephen Jurika Jr., US pilot, WW2 captain, Santa Cruz, Navy Cross.

1915 Birth: Herbert Huncke, writer.

1916 Birth: Wolfgang Hildesheimer, German-Swiss architect, writer; Mozart biography.

1917 WW1: Turkish troops surrender Jerusalem to British troops led by General Viscount Allenby.

1917 WW1: The new Finnish Republic demands the withdrawal of Russian troops.

1917 WW1: Peace talks begin between Germany and Russia at Brest-Litovsk in Belorussia. (Polyakov)

1917 WW1: Jerusalem is occupied by Allenby's British cavalry.

1918 Weimar: Allied troops cross the Rhine into Germany, taking bridgeheads as agreed upon in the armistice. The British at Cologne, the Americans at Koblenz, and the French at Mainz.

1920 The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to President Woodrow Wilson.

1922 Gabriel Narutowicz is elected as the Polish President.

1924 A Dutch-Hungary trade treaty is signed.

1924 Michael Hainisch is reelected as Austrian President.

1931 The Japanese army attacks the Chinese province of Jehol.

1933 Hundreds of Spaniards are killed and wounded when the Monarchist government crushes an anarchist uprising.

1936 The trial of David Frankfurter, the Jew accused of assassinating Swiss Nazi leader Wilhelm Gustloff, begins in Grisons state court in Switzerland.

1936 King Edward VIII sends a coded telegram to Baron Eugene de Rothschild requesting permission to stay at Rothschild's Castle Enzesfeld near Vienna. (Cowles)

1939 WW2: Dec 9-11 The League of Nations meets and agrees to intervene in the continuing dispute between Finland and the Soviet Union.

1939 WW2: Russia makes an air raid on Helsinki.

1940 WW2: The British launch a surprise attack on the Italians in the western desert and begin a push to drive them from Egypt.

1941 WW2: FDR tells Americans to plan for a long war.

1941 WW2: The first US bombing mission in the Far East takes place over Luzon, Philippines.

1941 WW2: China formally issues a declaration of war against the Axis Powers; Japan, Germany and Italy.

1941 WW2: Even though war has not been declared between the US and Germany, Adolf Hitler orders that US ships can now be torpedoed.

1942 Birth: Joe McGinniss, in Rye, New York, author of Selling of the President 1968.

1943 WW2: The Polish underground executes two Poles for betraying Jews to the Gestapo, and for denouncing Poles who sheltered Jews.

1945 WW2: General George S. Patton is injured in a car-truck collision near Mannheim, Germany.

1946 Doctor's Trial: An American military tribunal in Nuremberg opens criminal proceedings against 23 leading German physicians and administrators for participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity. The defendants are accused of planning and enacting the "Euthanasia" Program, the systematic killing of those they deemed "unworthy of life." The victims included the mentally retarded, the institutionalized mentally ill, and the physically impaired. (See Aug 20)

1948 The UN General Assembly approves the Convention on Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

1948 The United States abandons a plan to de-concentrate industry in Japan.

1949 The UN takes trusteeship over Jerusalem.

1949 The Dutch 2nd Chamber accepts Indonesian sovereignty.

1950 President Harry Truman bans US exports to Communist China.

1950 Harry Gold gets 30 years imprisonment for passing atomic bomb secrets to the Soviet Union during WW2.

1951 Voters approve a merger of 3 states to form Baden-Württemberg, West Germany.

1953 General Electric announces that all Communist employees will be fired.

1957 The first Japanese ambassador to Israel is appointed.

1958 Boston candy manufacturer Robert H.W. Welch Jr. and 11 other men meet in Indianapolis to form the anti-Communist John Birch Society; a right-wing organization dedicated to fighting what it perceives to be the extensive infiltration of communism into American society. (Bradley)

1959 Death: Kurt Kläber, writer.

1960 Sperry Rand Corporation, of St. Paul, Minnesota, unveils a new computer, known as Univac 1107, utilizing what is known as thin-film memory.

1960 The Laos government flees to Cambodia as the capital city of Vientiane is engulfed in war.

1961 Holocaust: SS Colonel Adolf Eichmann is found guilty of war crimes in Israel.

1962 Tanganyika becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth and takes the name Tanzania.

1962 Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park is established.

1963 Zanzibar gains independence from Britain.

1963 Death: Philibert Schmitz, in Belgium, historian, at 75.

1965 Nikolai Podgorny replaces Anastas Mikoyan as President of Presidium.

1966 Barbados becomes the 122nd member of the UN.

1967 The Cunard liner Queen Mary docks at Long Beach, California, after her final voyage.

1967 Lyndon Johnson's daughter Lynda gets married in the White House.

1967 Nicolae Ceausescu becomes President of Romania.

1968 Doug Engelbart demonstrates the first computer mouse at Stanford.

1970 Death: Artem Mikoyan, Russian aircraft designer (MIG), at 65.

1971 Lewis F. Powell Jr., is appointed to the US Supreme Court.

1974 Watergate: White House aide John Ehrlichman testifies that President Nixon is responsible for the cover-up.

1975 President Gerald Ford signs a $2.3 Billion loan authorization for New York City.

1978 Pioneer Venus 2 drops five probes into the atmosphere of Venus.

1982 Death: Fritz Usinger, German writer, at 87.

1983 Attorney General Edwin Meese declares that people go to soup kitchens '...because the food is free and that's easier than paying for it.'

1985 OPEC oil ministers fail to agree to attempts to control production and prices, setting the stage for a global oil price war.

1985 Former Argentine president Jorge Videla and his fellow junta member, Admiral Emilio Massera, are sentenced to life imprisonment for their part in the 'dirty war' against left-wing guerrillas in which up to 9,000 people disappeared. (Bradley)

1990 Lech Walesa, the former leader of the trade union Solidarity, wins a landslide victory in Poland's first direct presidential vote.

1991 The presidents of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine sign a treaty to abolish the USSR and form the CIS.

1992 US Marines storm into Mogadishu, in Somalia, spearheading an international effort to overcome one of the worst famines this century. Their mission is to ensure the delivery of food and medicine.

1993 US astronauts finish a grueling five-day repair job on the $3 billion Hubble Space Telescope.

1994 Britain and Sinn Fein, the Irish Republican Army's political wing, hold their first formal talks in more than 70 years.

1994 President Clinton fires US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders for reportedly suggesting that masturbation be taught in the schools.

1994 Death: Max Bill, Swiss painter, sculptor, politician, at 85.

1995 Death: Douglas 'Wrong Way' Corrigan, aviator.

1995 Death: Vitali Viktorovich Savitsky, biologist, politician, at 40.

1995 Poland's Supreme Court confirms the victory of ex-communist Aleksander Kwasniewski in November's presidential election, rejecting protests from supporters of defeated former Solidarity hero Lech Walesa.

1996 The UN authorizes the start of a long-delayed oil-for-food deal with Iraq, enabling Baghdad to make a limited return to the world oil market for the first time since its 1990 invasion of Kuwait.

1996 Death: Anne Bolt, photojournalist, trade unionist, at 84.

1996 Death: Ivor Roberts-Jones, sculptor, at 83.

1996 Death: Mary Douglas Nichol Leakey, archaeologist, anthropologist, at 83.

1996 Death: Raphael Samuel, historian, at 32.

2001 The British Government is accused of 'bullying' after going on the offensive against opposition peers who had defeated its antiterrorism legislation.

2001 US Vice President Dick Cheney confirms that the US has an incriminating video of Osama bin Laden, and indicates President Bush is considering release of the tape to further prove Osama bin Laden's responsibility for the September 11th attacks.

2001 American warplanes unleash wave after wave of air strikes on the snowcapped Tora Bora Mountain complex where Osama bin Laden and 1,000 al-Qaeda fighters are believed to be dug in. US military leaders express confidence in bin Laden's whereabouts saying, "Our latest information is ... that he is in this area, the so-called Tora Bora area."

2001 Eighteen Northern Alliance soldiers including several commanders are killed in a helicopter crash in northern Afghanistan.

2001 The United Nations begins a massive wheat distribution relief effort in Kabul.

2001 The astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor and the International Space Station pay tribute to those who died on Sept. 11 and those who are fighting terrorism. Endeavor is carrying thousands of small flags to be distributed to relatives of the victims. Also sent to space is a US flag that was flying at the World Trade Center on the morning of the attacks.

2001 North Korea accuses the US of making it a target after Afghanistan, saying the country is "in full combat preparedness to lay down their lives for the country...things will be different in the case of the second Korean War."


















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