History: December 30

December 30

1460 Wars of the Roses: Richard of York with some 5,000 men is heavily defeated by Queen Margaret and the Lancastrians at the battle of Wakefield; nearly 3,000 Yorkists are killed.

1803 In the second Maratha War, Daulat Rao of the ruling Sindhia family of Gwalior, finally surrenders to the British after being defeated in four battles. (Bradley)

1803 The United States takes formal possession of the territory of Louisiana, an area of 828,000 square miles, from France at New Orleans with a simple ceremony; the simultaneous lowering and raising of the national flags. (Bradley)

1853 The United States purchases 45,000 square miles of land along the Gila River from Mexico for $10 million. The area is now southern Arizona and New Mexico. (Bradley)

1861 Banks in the United States suspend the practice of redeeming paper money for metal currency, a practice that will continue until 1879.

1862 US Civil War: The draft of the Emancipation Proclamation is finished and circulated among President Abraham Lincoln's cabinet for comment. (Emancipation Proclamation -- First Draft)

1862 US Civil War: Sixteen crew are killed when the ironclad Union ship USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, during a storm.

1865 Birth: Rudyard Kipling, in India, novelist, short story author, poet, Nobel Prize for Literature 1907; The Jungle Book, Captains Courageous, Wee Willie Winkie and other Stories, Gunga Din.

1867 Birth: Simon Guggenheim, philanthropist; will establish the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation providing grants to scientists, scholars, artists.

1869 Birth: Stephen Leacock, Canadian economist, humorist; Literary Lapses, Nonsense Novels, Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town.

1873 Birth: Al Smith, former governor of New York, 1928 Democratic Party presidential nominee. "...Franklin Roosevelt is said to have explained Al Smith, and his own New Deal, with these words: "Practically all the things we've done in the federal government are the things Al Smith did as governor of New York." Smith, who ran for president in 1928, not only set the model for FDR, he also taught America that the promise of the country extends to everyone and no one should be left behind. The story of this trailblazer is the story of America in the twentieth century. A child of second-generation immigrants, a boy self-educated on the streets of the nation's largest city, he went on to become the greatest governor in the history of New York; a national leader and symbol to immigrants, Catholics, and the Irish; and in 1928 the first Catholic major-party candidate for president. He was the man who championed safe working conditions in the wake of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire. He helped build the Empire State Building. Above all, he was a national model, both for his time and for ours..."

1880 The Transvaal, under Paul Kruger, declares itself a republic.

1884 Birth: Hideki Tojo, Prime Minister of Japan.

1903 A fire in the Iroquois Theatre in Chicago kills 588 people. This tragedy will lead to new theater safety codes across America.

1905 Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg is killed by an assassin's bomb.

1914 American Magazine runs an article saying that Ray Stannard Baker reported in 1909 that the Christian churches in America have "awakened as never before to the so-called Jewish problem."

1915 WW1: A German submarine torpedoes the British P & O liner Persia off Crete. At least 330 people are killed out of the 501 passengers and crew aboard.

1918 Weimar: Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxenburg change the name of the Spartacus League to the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).

1927 The first subway in the Orient is dedicated in Tokyo, Japan. Many people had worried that the ground under Tokyo was too soft for a subway, but their fears prove unfounded as the Tokyo Underground Railway Company opens the first section of the subway between Ueno and Asakusa. Its last extension will be added in 1980, making the Tokyo underground railroad network the sixth longest in the world at 135 miles. It is surpassed only by subway systems in Washington, DC, London, New York, Paris and Moscow. (Bradley)

1932 The Soviet Union bars food handouts for housewives under 36 years of age. They must now work to eat.

1933 Romanian Premier Ion Duca is assassinated by a member of the Iron Guard.

1936 A Polish Jesuit periodical asserts that it is necessary "to provide separate schools for Jews, so that our children will not be infected with their lower morality." (Atlas)

1937 General Miller, General Ktiepov's successor, is kidnapped in Paris and later executed in Moscow.

1937 After four months service with the SS-Death's Head Division Oberbayern at Dachau, Otto Rahn is given leave to devote himself fully to writing until his resignation from the SS in February 1939. (Roots)

1937 Volkishness: Otto Rahn's second book Luzifers Hofgesind Eine Reise zu Europas guten Geisten (Lucifer's Court in Europe) is published in Leipzig.

1938 Holocaust: Hjalmar Schacht meets in London with George Rublee, American lawyer and director of the intergovernmental committee. Schacht presents a plan to allow 150,000 German Jews to leave Germany over a three year period. (Architect)

1939 The Secret Diary of Anti-Hitler Conspirator Ulrich von Hassel: "I arrived in Berlin on the 27th, an hour and a half late, and first of all went to look for Popitz. He judged the situation considerably more optimistically than the last time, because the terror regime of the SS in the East and the arrogance of these men towards the army were gradually opening the eyes of the soldiers to this disgrace to Germany and this brigand state within a state. In the West, too, he informed me, the SS had marched up behind the army to take Holland and Belgium into their possession, to the great bitterness of the army. It seems that Hitler had ordered that the executive power there should remain in the hands of the army, not as in Poland. But nobody has any faith in these statements any more, least of all in their permanence. Popitz described the situation more or less as follows: Among the top-ranking generals, Brauchitsch has been written off. The idea is now that a few divisions should be halted in Berlin "on the way from the West to the East". Then Witzleben should appear in Berlin and mop up the SS. There upon Beck should travel to Zossen and relieve Brauchitsch's weak hands of the High Command. Hitler should be certified medically unfit to govern and be locked up. Then an appeal to the nation, with a promise to prevent any further atrocities by the SS, to continue the war, but in readiness to accept a peace on a reasonable basis."

1941 Holocaust: SS Major Christian Wirth, former Chief of the Criminal Police in the city of Stuttgart, working on behalf of the gauleiter of Warthegau, who had recently obtained Himmler's permission to kill 100,000 Jews in his jurisdiction, sets up operation in the village of Chelmno (Kulmhof), forty miles northwest of the Lodz ghetto. On the old castle grounds in the village, Wirth installs several vans of the type the Einsatzgruppen had experimented with in Russia. They are rigged to direct carbon-monoxide fumes from the engine's exhaust into a large sealed cabin in the rear. The larger vans accommodate up to 150 people who are gassed on the way to burial grounds. Note: Wirth had conducted the first gassing experiments on the incurably insane in 1939 at the "euthanasia" institution at Brandenburg an der Havel in Prussia. (Apparatus)

1941 WW2: Stalin calls on the Orthodox Patriarch of Russia to bless the Red Army.

1941 WW2: US forces are pulled back from Tarlac to their last prepared line before the Bataan Peninsula.

1942 Stalingrad: Stavka directive that the attack at Stalingrad is to take place on 6 January. Note: On 3 January, because of delays in deploying troops and moving up supplies, Rokossovsky and the Stavka representative with the Don and Voronezh Fronts, Nikolai Voronov, ask for postponement. Stalin grudgingly allows them four days. (Messenger)

1944 WW2: The VIII Corps from Patton's Third Army begins a new attack northward in the direction of Houffalize.

1947 King Michael of Romania is forced to abdicate when the Romanian People's Republic is proclaimed.

1963 OAS leader Antoine Argoud is sentenced to life imprisonment for assassination attempts on Charles De Gaulle.

1965 Former Philippines Senate president Ferdinand Marcos is inaugurated president of the Southeast Asian archipelago nation. Marcos' regime will span 20 years and become increasingly authoritarian and corrupt.

1968 Death: Trygve Lie, Norwegian statesman and first secretary-general of the UN (1946-52).

1972 The Nam: After two weeks of heavy bombing raids, President Nixon orders a halt to the bombing of North Vietnam and announces that peace talks with Hanoi government representative Le Duc Tho will resume in Paris in January.

1975 The Malagasy Republic changes its name to the Democratic Republic of Madagascar.

1976 Governor Carey of New York pardons seven inmates, closing the book on the Attica uprising.

1985 President Zia ul Haq of Pakistan ends martial law, in operation since he came to power in 1977.

1985 Arab terrorists kill 12 people at El-Al airport desks in Rome and Vienna.

1986 The Exxon Corporation becomes the first major international oil company to withdraw from South Africa because of that nation's racial policies. (Bradley)

1988 Iran-Contra: US President Ronald Reagan and President-elect George Bush are subpoenaed to testify at the trial of former White House aide Oliver North on criminal charges stemming from the Iran-Contra affair.

1988 Yury Churbanov, son-in-law of former Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, is jailed for 12 years for bribery.

1990 European nations call for an emergency European Community summit to find a solution to the Persian Gulf crisis.

1992 Interim Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani is elected head of state for two years in a ballot in which he is the sole candidate.

1993 Sudan, angered by the Archbishop of Canterbury's visit to the rebel-held south, orders the British ambassador to leave the country.

1995 North Korea releases a US Army pilot whose helicopter had been shot down 13 days earlier over North Korean territory.

1995 Representative Newt Gingrich, R-Georgia, who is to be the next House Speaker, announces he will give up the $4.5 million advance from HarperCollins Publishing Incorporated, but will go ahead with the two books. (Bradley)

1995 Tens of thousands of cheering Palestinians greet PLO leader Yasser Arafat in Ramallah in the West Bank after Israeli troops withdraw from the city.

1995 Hundreds of people, many weeping with joy, line the streets of Gorazde in eastern Bosnia to welcome the first passenger bus into the Muslim enclave for over three years.

2001 British Prime Minister Tony Blair urges India and Pakistan to show restraint as tension grows between the two nations.

2001 The chairman of the Senate intelligence committee says that Osama bin laden has likely survived the American military campaign and may have escaped to Pakistan.

2001 Afghan and British negotiators reach an agreement opening the way for a multinational peacekeeping force to be deployed around Afghanistan.

2001 Afghan officials say they will restore the two giant sandstone Buddhas destroyed by the Taliban in March, 2001.

2001 An observation platform with an unobstructed view of the World Trade Center's Ground Zero opens with long lineups in New York City.












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