History: July 11

July 11

1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected Holy Roman Emperor. "During his reign imperial policy refocused on the Germanic sphere and abandoned the ideal of the Holy Roman Empire as a universal monarchy. Charles IV concentrated his energies chiefly on......"

1533 The Many Problems Of Henry VIII: After divorcing his wife and becoming head of the church of England, Henry is excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.

1708 The French are defeated at Oudenarde, Malplaquet, in the Netherlands, by the Duke of Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy.

1742 A papal decree is issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.


1786 The Barbary Treaties 1786-1816: Morocco agrees to stop attacking American ships in the Mediterranean for a payment of $10,000 tribute. Note: The two Washington administrations (with Jefferson as Secretary of State for most), as well as that of John Adams (with Jefferson as VP), were unable to do more than pay for safe passage through the waters controlled by these pirate states (including what is now modern day Libya), as the new Republic had no Navy to speak of. Adams rammed through a Navel program in order to deal with these sorts of humiliations, against the opposition of the newly emerging Republican Party, led from behind the scenes by Thomas Jefferson. It was this same Jefferson who would use Adams's fleet to defeat the Barbary Pirates, and assert American arms overseas for the first time in history.

1798 The U.S. Marine Corps is formally re-established by "An Act for Establishing a Marine Corps" passed by the U.S. Congress. The act also creates the U.S. Marine Band.  The Marines were first commissioned by the Continental Congress on November 10, 1775.

1804 The United States' first Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, is killed by Vice President Aaron Burr in a duel. "Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr raised their dueling pistols and took aim...."

1864 In the U.S., Confederate forces led by General Jubal Anderson Early begin an invasion of Washington, DC. They turn back the next day.

1918 Enrico Caruso records "Over There" written by George M. Cohan.


1921 Hitler resigns from the Nazi party because he has not been given the dictatorial powers he seeks. He is betting that they cannot do without him. (See 26 July)


1933 Wilhelm Frick, German Minister of the Interior, announces that "the German revolution is terminated."

1934 US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt becomes the first American chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal while in office.

1936 A German-Austrian friendship treaty is signed

1938 The French chamber passes a law authorizing the prime minister to govern by decree in the event of war.

1940 WW2: Dijon is taken and to the east Guderian's units have reached the Saone. The Maginot Line is breached near Colmar in Alsace. On the Channel coast there are more evacuations. From St. Molo during the next two days 21,474 Allied troops are taken off and from Brest 32,584. The evacuations from St. Nazaire and Nantes take three days and carry 57,235 away but over 3000 are lost when the Lancastria is sunk by German bombers.


1940 Those Vichy French: French President Lebrun resigns and Marshal Petain becomes head of state after an overwhelming vote of confidence in the Vichy Parliament. In London, France asks Britain to be released from the obligation not to make a separate peace. In return the British make an offer to establish a state of union between the two countries, but this rather wild scheme is rejected by the French.

1940 Battle Of Britian: Over the next two days, the Luftwaffe makes a seres of attacks against shipping in the English Channel. The Germans lose a total of 93 aircraft, the British 48.

1943 WW2: Start of the "Peter and Paul Action" in Wolyn. This campaign of ethnic cleansing by the OUN-UPA involves the mass slaughter of non-Ukrainian citizens, especially Poles.

Stauffenberg (far left) Eyes His Prey

1944 Bomb Plot: Colonel Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg brings a bomb to Berchtesgaden, and although he is with Hitler and Goering for more than half an hour, he does not release the bomb because Himmler is not present. (Children)

1945 The first meeting of the Inter-Allied Council is held in Berlin. The Soviets agree to turn over control of the allocated areas of the city to the British and Americans who have made arrangements to give some of their sectors to the French.


1946 SS Col. Joachim Peiper is ordered hanged for the shooting of American prisoners at Malmedy. Peiper is taken to Landsberg Prison to await execution. Note: Five years later, in 1951, he is still waiting, and in December 1956, he is paroled. (Secrets)

1955 The U.S. Air Force Academy is dedicated in Colorado Springs, CO, at Lowry Air Base.

1962 The first transatlantic TV transmission is sent through the Telstar I satellite.

1972 The Nam: U.S. forces break the 95-day siege at An Loc.

1977 The Medal of Freedom is awarded posthumously to Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in a White House ceremony.

1979 The abandoned U.S. space station Skylab returns to Earth the hard way, as it burns up in the atmosphere and showers debris over the Indian Ocean and Australia.


1980 Iranian Revolution: The Ayatollah Ruhollah 'America's The Great Satan' Khomeini orders the release of hostage Richard Queen due to illness. Queen is flown to Zurich, Switzerland. Note: Queen had been taken hostage with 62 other Americans at the U.S. embassy in Tehran on November 4, 1979.

1985 Dr. H. Harlan Stone announces that he has used zippers for stitches on 28 patients. The zippers were used when he thought he may have to re-operate.

1995 Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.

1998 U.S. Air Force Lt. Michael Blassie, a casualty of the Vietnam War, is laid to rest near his Missouri home. He had been positively identified from his remains that had been enshrined in the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, VA.




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