History: July 15

July 15

1099 The Crusades: The Muslim citizens of Jerusalem surrender their city to the armies of the First Crusade. The Crusaders then proceed to massacre thousands of unarmed men, women and children.

1410  Poles and Lithuanians defeat the Teutonic knights at Tannenburg, Prussia.

Balsahzzar's Feast by Rembrandt

1606 Birth: Rembrandt [Harmenszoon van Rijn], artist, in Leiden, Netherlands (Night Watch). Died in 1669.

1662 Charles II grants a charter to establish the Royal Society in London.

1685 The Duke of Monmouth is executed in Tower Hill in England, after his army is defeated at Sedgemore.

1701 Birth: Pierre Joubert, the oldest known Canadian (113 years 124 days at death).

1788 Louis XVI jails 12 deputies who protested new judicial reforms.

1789 French Revolution: The electors of Paris set up a "Commune" to live without the authority of the government.

1796 Birth: Thomas Bulfinch, historian and mythologist (The Age of Fable, Bulfinch's Mythology).

1813 War of 1812: Napoleon Bonaparte's representatives meet with the Allies in Prague to discuss peace terms.

Maitland and the Bellerphon

1815 Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders to Captain Maitland at Rochefort on HBMS Bellerophon and is subsequently exiled to the island of Saint Helena.

1823 In Rome, the church known as St Paul's Outside the Walls is destroyed by a fire. Its original edifice was erected in AD 324 by the Roman emperor Constantine.

1834 Lord Napier of England arrives in Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of trade.

1857 British women and children are murdered in the second Cawnpore Massacre during the Indian Mutiny.

1863 Confederate raider Bill Anderson and his Bushwhackers attack Huntsville, MO, where they steal $45,000 from the local bank. Note: I could find no confirmation whatsoever for this item.

1869 Margarine is patented in Paris, for use in the French Navy.

1869 Death: A. J. Hayne, black captain of Arkansas militia, assassinated.

1870 Georgia becomes the last of the Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.

1870 Hudson's Bay and Northwest Territories are transferred to Canada.

1904 The first Buddhist temple in the United States is established in Los Angeles, California.

1912 National Insurance or social payment, devised by Lloyd George, is introduced in Britain.


1915 Dr. Heinrich Albert, head of German propaganda in America, accidentially leaves his briefcase on a subway in New York. A secret service agent retrieves it and exposes the existence of an extensive espionage network and subversive activities across the nation. German consuls, embassy staff, officials of the Hamburg-American Steamship Line and many German-Americans are implicated.


1915 Rudolf von Sebottendorff marries Berta Anna Iffland, the divorced daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm Müller, a wealthy Berlin merchant. The marriage takes place in Vienna. (Roots)

1916 In Seattle, WA, Pacific Aero Products is incorporated by William Boeing. The company is later renamed Boeing Co.

1918 WW1: The Second Battle of the Marne begins. (Document: Erich Ludendorff on the Second Battle of the Marne.)

1918 July 15 - 17 Dispatch Runner Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler participates in offensive operations on the Marne and in Champagne with 3 Company, 16 Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment. (Masser)

1932 Merit Pay: Herbert Hoover’s salary is reduced by a voluntary 20 percent.

1933 Germany signs the Four Powers Pact with France, Great Britain and Italy. (Lewy)

1933 Britain's Lord Alfrd Melchett converts to Judaism. (Edelheit)

1934 Holocaust: Nazis march the length of the Kurfurstendam in Berlin, wrecking Jewish owned shops and attacking all those they believe to be Jewish.

1935 Holocaust: The Wehrmacht chief of staff issues orders banning all German soldiers from shopping in "non-Aryan" shops and stores.

1936 The League of Nations and Western Powers lift economic sanctions against Italy.

1936 Holocaust: Professor Mollison, an anthropologist at the University of Munich, recommends to the Ministry of the Interior that the costs of expert reports on "Aryan" or Jewish origins should be recovered from the applicants. "It is not advisable to provide such a time-consuming investigation free for those who claim Aryan origins when they know they are not entitled to do so." (Science)

1937 Holocaust: The German-Polish Convention of May, 1922 expires along with its protection of Jewish minority rights in Upper Silesia. The Jews of Upper Silesia are now exposed to the full rigors of Nazi rule. (Atlas)


1939 Holocaust: A Central Office for Jewish Emigration (Zentralstelle fuer Juedische Auswanderung) opens in Prague under the direction of Adolf Eichmann. A branch office is set up in Brno. All Jews wishing to emigrate from the Czech Protectorate must request permission from these offices.

1940 Plebiscites conducted in Soviet occupied Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia are announced, showing what is described as a unanimous desire for union with the USSR. Stalin soon annexes the three nations into the USSR as constituent republics.

1941 Barbarossa: Smolensk is taken, and another 300,000 Russian soldiers with it. (Clark II)

1942 Holocaust: The first train leaves Holland for Auschwitz. 1,135 Dutch Jews are on board.

1942 WW2: The first supply flight from India to China over the 'Hump' is carried to help China's war effort.

1944 The Bomb Plot: Stauffenberg takes a bomb to a meeting in Rastenburg. Himmler and Goering are not present and Hitler leaves before the bomb can be planted. (Children)

1944 WW2: Greenwich Observatory is damaged by a flying bomb.

1945 WW2: Italy declares war on its former Axis partner, Japan.

1948 President Harry S. Truman is nominated for another term by the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia.


1948 Death: John J. Pershing, military commander whose brilliant career earned him the title General of the Armies of the United States. The first general awarded the title since George Washington, Pershing was given a hero's burial at Arlington National Cemetery. He was born in Laclede, Missouri, on 13 September 1860, the first of six children. His mother taught him at home, helping to inspire in him a love of learning. He realised his dream of attaining a formal college education when he won a scholarship to the US Military Academy. After graduating from West Point in 1886, Pershing was given command of the 6th Cavalry Regiment in the West, where he participated in the Apache and Sioux campaigns. He was promoted to First Lieutenant of the 10th Cavalry Regiment in Montana, one of several segregated regiments formed after passage of an 1866 law authorising the US Army to form cavalry and infantry regiments of black soldiers. Reflecting the racial prejudices of the era, the law also stipulated the units be commanded by white officers. Pershing expressed his admiration for the black soldiers under his command forcefully and often, earning for himself the honourary nickname of 'Black Jack'.

1954 The first commercial jet transport airplane built in US is tested (Boeing 707).

1958 Five thousand U.S. Marines land in Beirut, Lebanon, to protect the pro-Western government. The troops withdraw October 25, 1958.

1964 Senator Barry 'Drew Carey' Goldwater of Arizona is nominated for president by the Republican national convention in San Francisco.

1965 The unmanned spacecraft Mariner 4 passeS over Mars at an altitude of 6,000 feet and sends back to Earth the first close-up images of the red planet. Launched in November 1964, Mariner 4 carried a television camera and six other science instruments to study Mars and interplanetary space within the solar system. Reaching Mars on 14 July 1965, the spacecraft began sending back television images of the planet just after midnight on July 15. The pictures, nearly 22 in all, revealed a vast, barren wasteland of craters and rust-coloured sand, dismissing 19th-century suspicions that an advanced civilization might exist on the planet. The canals that American astronomer Percival Lowell spied with his telescope in 1890 proved to be an optical illusion, but ancient natural waterways of some kind did seem to be evident in some regions of the planet. Once past Mars, Mariner 4 journeyed on to the far side of the sun before returning to the vicinity of Earth in 1967. Nearly out of power by then, communication with the spacecraft was terminated in December 1967.

1968 Commercial air travel begins between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., when the first plane, a Soviet Aeroflot jet, lands at Kennedy International Airport in New York.

1971 U.S. President Nixon announces he will visit the People's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."

1975 Apollo-Soyuz: Three American astronauts blast off aboard an Apollo spaceship hours after two Soviet cosmonauts Are launched aboard a Soyuz spacecraft for a mission that includes a linkup of the two ships in orbit.

1982 The US Senate confirms George Shultz as the 60th secretary of state by a vote of 97-0.

1986 Britain and the Soviet Union settle accounts on $75 million in bonds that were issued under Russia's czars and defaulted on after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution. The settlement ends a 60-year financial dispute.

1987 Iran-Contra: Former National Security Adviser John Poindexter tells the Iran-Contra congressional panels that he personally authorised the transfer of Iran arms sale profits to the Nicaraguan rebels.

1990 Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and visiting West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl hold talks on the issue of a united Germany's membership in NATO.

1991 A former POW releases a photograph showing three US servicemen, missing in Southeast Asia since the Vietnam War, holding a sign dated 25 May 1990. ""The Lundy family positively identified one of the men in the photo as Albro Lundy Junior. The other two men, Navy Lt. Larry Stevens and Air Force Col. John Leighton Robertson, were also identified by their family members. The photo, accompanied by three sets of fingerprints and palm prints said to be those of the three men was inscribed with a date (May 25 1990), and a cryptic set of initials. Families found it incredible that no fingerprint records could be found to check against those sent back with the photo. In Major Lundy's case, this required the loss or destruction of multiple sets of fingerprints known to once have been on file with the Air Force, the FBI, the State Department, and his college ROTC. Further investigation by the Lundy family shows....."

1991 GW1: US troops leave northern Iraq.

1996 Russian President Boris Yeltsin misses an appointment with Vice President Gore. They meet the next day, but Yeltsin is ill and rumours begin circulating that he is dying.

1997 In Milwaukee, a jury awards $26.6 million to a former Miller Brewing executive who sued the company for firing him after he discussed a racy episode of Seinfeld with a female co-worker. Jerold Mackenzie was fired from his $95,000-a-year job in 1993 after he told co-worker Patricia Best about the episode and she complained. Miller planned to appeal. In the episode of the NBC sitcom that Mackenzie recounted to Best, Jerry Seinfeld's character can't remember the name of his new girlfriend, only that it rhymed with a female body part. Jerry and his friends tried a few guesses, including 'Mulva' and 'Gipple'. Mackenzie said he was relieved by the verdict, saying "you should be able to talk to your co-workers".

1999 The US government acknowledges for the first time that thousands of workers were made sick while making nuclear weapons and announce a plan to compensate many of them.

1999 Texas Governor George W. Bush announces he will not accept matching federal funds for his Republican presidential bid, thus freeing him from spending caps under the law. Bush had already raised more money than any previous candidate for a presidential nomination.


2002 Post 911: John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to two felonies; supplying services to Afghanistan's former Taliban government, and carrying explosives during the commission of a felony. Lindh will spend 10 years in prison for each of the charges. "....(Lindh) apologized for fighting alongside the Taliban, saying, "had I realized then what I know now ...I would never would have joined them." The 21-year-old said Osama bin Laden is against Islam and that he "never understood jihad to mean anti-American or terrorism. I understand why so many Americans were angry when I was first discovered in Afghanistan. I realize many still are, but I hope in time that feeling will change......"

2002 A judge in Pakistan finds four men guilty of kidnapping and murder in the death of Wall Street Journal reporter David Pearl. One of the men draws the death penalty, the others prison terms.

2002 Post 911: The search through the rubble officially ends at the Staten Island Recovery Site.


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