July 22 "Banks were having miserable public relations problems during the Depression. Many of them failed, sweeping away the life savings of millions of hard working people. Those that stayed in business foreclosed on people's homes, farms and businesses as the economy went from bad to worse. So bank robbers were not particularly viewed as terrible criminals by the average American. There was even a touch of Robin Hood when bank robbers destroyed all of the mortgage records at the banks they hit....." 1972 Venera 8 makes a soft landing on Venus.
1298 The Battle Of Falkirk: The English use longbows for the first time as they defeat the Scots led by William Wallace.
1376 Fact and Fiction: According to legend, a Pied Piper rid the German town of Hamelin of its rats. When the townspeople refused to pay the piper for his deed, he mesmerised their children with his tunes. The children followed him out of town never to be seen again. Note: Some Historians now say that the legend is based on events that took place in 1284 when young men left Hamelin to find work in other lands.
1478 Birth: Philip I (the Handsome), 1st Habsburg king of Spain (1506). Note: After his death his wife kept his corpse and continued to sleep with it beside her bed for three years.
1515 Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forge an alliance between the Hapsburg and Jagiello dynasties in Vienna.
1587 A second English Colony is established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina.
1604 King James and Bishop Bancroft work out a set of 14 instructions to the translators of the King James version of the Bible on this date. The instructions are designed to ensure that, despite the variety of views among the translators, the forth-coming work will be a Protestant Bible and the Bible names be 'retained as near as may be' to the original. It is requested that when the translators have completed work on their assigned sections, that they should confer together on what had been done. Note: The King James Version is often referred to as the most successful work ever done by a committee.
1620 A ship, called the Speedhaven, sets sail this day from Delfshaven, Holland, bringing a small congregation of English Separatists to the New World. "John Robinson (1575-1625) was the pastor of the separatist Pilgrims' church in Leyden, Holland. The leadership and respect he gained as pastor is the primary reason the Pilgrims were so united together and able to overcome hardships that caused other groups in similar positions to fail. Robinson encouraged the Pilgrim church to move to the New World, but when only a minority of his church decided to emigrate at first, he remained behind with the majority of the congregation in Leyden--planning to come later after the Colony was established and more people emigrated. His unexpected death in 1625 put an end to his plans. The last of the church members remaining in Leyden arrived at Plymouth in 1629. John Robinson's theological viewpoints, which were likewise the theological viewpoints of the Leyden Pilgrims in general, were published in many assorted pamphlets and books written by Robinson himself. His writings are extremely important to understanding the Pilgrims religious beliefs. Representative sections of some of his writings can be found below. For a generalized overview of the Pilgrim's religious views, click here."
1652 Prince Conde's rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
1784 Birth: Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, German astronomer and mathematician. Died in 1846.
1789 Thomas Jefferson becomes the first head of the US Department of Foreign Affairs.
1793 Alexander Mackenzie, the explorer of Canada, reaches the Pacific. "Mackenzie became the first European north of Mexico to reach the Pacific ocean on an overland route, beating, as well, the American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark who arrived at the coast in 1805. Without the guidance of Indians, Mackenzie would have been unlikely to reach the Western Sea. While crossing the Peace River watershed to the Fraser, they suggested to proceed overland...."
1796 Cleveland (Ohio) is founded by Gen. Moses Cleaveland. Note: Old Moe didn't stick around long; he left the place that eventually removed the 'a' from his name forever only a few years later.
1802 Death: Bichat (be'sha), Marie Francois Xavier (b.1771). Physiologist and anatomist, was adopted by Desault, whose works he edited, and after his death devoted himself to research in anatomy and surgery with such incessant industry as to undermine his constitution. He left numerous works of the highest value.
1812 The Battle of Salamanca takes place in west Spain, in which the Duke of Wellington is victorious over the French in the Peninsular War.
1814 War Of 1812: Five Indian tribes in Ohio make peace with the United States and declare war on Britain.
1822 Birth: Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and brilliant pioneering botanist. Austrian pioneer of the study of heredity, born in Heizendorf, Austria. Changed his name from Johann Mendel in 1843. Spent his adult life with the Augustinian monastery in Brunn, as a geneticist, botanist and plant experimenter, was the first to lay the mathematical foundation of the science of genetics, in what came to be called Mendelism. Died 6 January 1884.
1847 The first large company of Mormon immigrants enters the Salt Lake Valley, in what is still Mexican territory. Soon after, Mormon leader Brigham Young founds Salt Lake City, Utah.
1849 Birth: Emma Lazarus, poet, whose poem was inscribed on the Statue of Liberty.
1862 US Civil War: Northern representatives in London learn of a ship being built in the shipyards at Birkenhead for use by the Confederate navy.
1864 US Civil War: In the first battle of Atlanta, Confederate troops under General John Hood are defeated by Union forces under General William Sherman.
1881 The first volume of The War of the Rebellion: A compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, is published.
Washington Square by Hopper
1882 Birth: Edward Hopper, painter (Nighthawks, House by the Railroad).
1887 Birth: Gustav Hertz, German quantum physicist (Nobel 1925).
1890 Birth: Rose Kennedy, mother of US President John F. Kennedy, US Attorney General Robert Kennedy, US Senator Edward Kennedy, among others. Died in 1995.
1892 Birth: Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Austrian chancellor (1930s).
1898 Birth: Alexander Calder, sculptor. Died in 1976.
1900 Fifty-five American athletes complete their domination of the second modern Olympic games held in Paris. The games reopened in 1896 after a lapse of 1,500 years.
1912 The 5th Olympic games, in Stockholm closes.
1916 A bomb hidden in a suitcase explodes during a Preparedness Day parade on San Francisco's Market Street, killing 10 people and wounding 40. The parade was organised by the city's Chamber of Commerce in support of America's possible entrance into World War I (WWI).
1917 A mutiny is successfully put down at the German naval base at Kiel.
1917 WW1: July 22-Aug 3 Dispatch Runner Lance Corporal Adolf Hitler serves at the front with 3 Company, 16 Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment during 'Phase 2' operations in Flanders. (Maser)
1917 Russian Revolution: Stalin plays an important organizational role in the Bolshevik party after the first unsuccessful Bolshevik attempt to seize power during the "July days".
1918 Russian Revolution: Russian Constituent Assembly delegates begin fleeing to western Siberia and form their own "All-Russian" government, which is soon suppressed by a reactionary "White" dictatorship under Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak. Army officers in southern Russia organize a "Volunteer Army" under the leadership of Generals Lavr Kornilov and Anton Denikin and gain support from Britain and France. Both in the Volga region and the eastern Ukraine, peasants begin to organize against Bolshevik requisitioning and mobilization. Soon anarchist "Greens" are fighting the "Reds" (Bolsheviks) and Whites alike in guerrilla-type warfare. Even in Moscow and Petrograd, leftist Socialist Revolutionaries take up arms against the Bolsheviks, whom they accuse of betraying revolutionary ideals.
1923 Birth: Bob Dole, US Senate majority leader, 1996 GOP candidate for president of US, (Senator-R-Kansas).
1933 American aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York, having flown solo around the world in 7 days, 18 hours, and 49 minutes. He is the first aviator to accomplish the feat. Post, instantly recognisable by the patch he wears over one eye, began the journey on 15 July, flying nonstop to Berlin. After a brief rest, he flew on to the Soviet Union, where he made several stops before returning to North America, with stops in Alaska, Canada, and finally a triumphant landing at his starting point in New York. Two years earlier, Post had won fame when he successfully flew around the northern part of the earth with aviator Harold Gatty. For his solo around-the-world flight in 1933, he flew a slightly greater distance, 15,596 miles, in less time. For both flights, he used the Winnie Mae, a Lockheed Vega monoplane that was equipped with a Sperry automatic pilot and a direction radio for Post's solo journey. In August 1935, he was attempting to fly across the North Pole to the USSR with American humorist Will Rogers when both men were killed in a crash near Point Barrow, Alaska.
1933 Church and Reich: The text of the Concordat is released to the press. A secret annex is never announced to the public, or even to party members (see August 29, 1939).
1933 Colditz (Sachsen) concentration camp goes into operation.
1934 John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents at the Biograph Theatre in Chicago, IL.
Rigor Mortis and the well-endowed bank robber
1938 Holocaust: The Third Reich issued special identity cards for Jewish Germans.
1940 WW2: Lord Halifax, British Foreign Secretary, replies to Hitler's call for peace. Saying, "We shall not stop fighting till freedom for ourselves and others is secure."
1941 Holocaust: Nazi killing squads arrive in Bessarabia. Romanian troops and militias murder thousands of Jews in the area of their advance. Following the initial killings, internment camps are set up throughout the province. At the camp in Edineti, 70 to 100 people die every day in July and August, mostly of starvation. In all, more than 148,000 Bessarabian Jews perish in the ghettos and camps of Transnistria. (Atlas)
1941 Barbarossa: The German advance is temporarily halted to allow infantry and supplies to catch up to the Panzer armies. The German's are experiencing a new kind of warfare. The Russians seem content to trade 10 Russian lives for 1 German. They continually mount reckless counter-attacks. These wasteful attacks have an unnerving effect on the Wehrmarcht. (Clark II)
1941 WW2: The German advance in Russia has been so rapid that less than 300,000 of Russia's 2.7 million Jews are able to escape to safety beyond the Volga River. (Atlas)
1941 Holocaust: Himmler orders the enlargement of Auschwitz and the additional of a killing center.
1941 WW2: U.S. troops occupy Iceland to provide protection for American ships sailing to England. President Franklin 'He Started It' Roosevelt says it is to prevent the island's occupation by Germany.
1942 WW2: Gasoline rationing (petrol) begins in the US.
1942 Holocaust: The Germans begin their most ambitious project to date: the deporting of more than half a million Jews from the Warsaw ghetto. The death camp prepared for them is Treblinka, little more than 40 miles away. In just one month, 66,701 Jews are transported to Treblinka and gassed on arrival. (Atlas)
1942 WW2: The desperate Polish underground recommends that the Allies turn over Germans in their countries to the Polish Government-in-Exile; for evey Pole killed, 100 of the Germans would be eliminated. The Allies decline.
1943 Diary of Leon Gladun: (Iran) Hospital No.1 again.
1943 WW2: The U.S. Seventh Army led by Gen. George S. Patton takes Palermo, Sicily
1944 Holocaust: As Russian troops approach Lublin and the nearby death camp at Majdanek, the Germans march 1,200 Jews westward toward Kielce, where 180 are murdered. The survivors are sent by train to Auschwitz, where 200 more are gassed on arrival. (Atlas)
1944 WW2: The Soviets set up a Polish Committee of National Liberation.
1946 Radical Zionism: 90 people are killed when Jewish extremists blow up a wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
1946 After a failed wheat harvest, bread is rationed in Britain.
1952 The Polish constitution is adopted. Now a National Day.
1955 US Vice-President Richard M. Nixon chairs a cabinet meeting in Washington, DC. It is the first time that a Vice-President has carried out this task. Note: Nixon was probably the 'best trained' chief executive, with the most on the job experiance, ever.
1962 The first US Venus probe, Mariner 1, fails at lift-off.
1966 The Nam: B-52 bombers hit the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam for the first time.
1967 Death: Carl Sandburg, poet (Abraham Lincoln: The Prarie Years), aged 89.
1975 Confederate General Robert E. Lee has his US citizenship restored by Congress-nearly 110 years after he applied for citizen status. Although Lee applied for amnesty and signed an oath of allegiance to the US shortly after his surrender in 1865, his documents were lost and were not recovered until the 1970s.
1979 Little Richard, known as Reverend Richard Penniman, speaks at a revival meeting in North Richmond, CA. He warns the congregation about the evils of rock & roll music.
1986 MPs vote to abolish the cane in UK state schools.
1987 The US begins escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers in the Persian Gulf.
1988 500 US scientists pledge to boycott Pentagon germ-warfare research.
1988 Death: Luigi Lucioni, Italian landscape painter (opera stars), aged 87.
1992 The War On Some Drugs: Pablo Escobar, the boss of the Medellin cocaine cartel, and nine henchmen, vanish from a Colombian prison. Note: Many months later, Escobar will be surrounded and shot dead.
1994 President Clinton orders the Pentagon to begin a major relief effort in Rwanda.
1998 Iran tests a medium-range missile, capable of reaching Israel or Saudi Arabia.
1999 China outlaws the Falun Gong, or Buddhist Law, religious sect and begins detaining thousands of its members.
2000 Astronomers at the University of Arizona announce that they've found a 17th moon orbiting Jupiter.
2001 G8: Six Britons are among 96 anti-capitalist protesters arrested during summit demonstrations in Italy.
2002 Post 911: General Myers and Secretary Rumsfeld anounce that Pakistan has captured Al-Qaeda Officials.
2002 Post 911: President Bush tours the Argonne Illinois National Laboratory's new technological advances in fighting terrorism.
2002 Post 911: US Troops end the Philippine Training Mission.
2003 Post 911: Saddam Hussein's sons Odai and Qusai die after a gunfight with U.S. forces.
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"Banks were having miserable public relations problems during the Depression. Many of them failed, sweeping away the life savings of millions of hard working people. Those that stayed in business foreclosed on people's homes, farms and businesses as the economy went from bad to worse. So bank robbers were not particularly viewed as terrible criminals by the average American. There was even a touch of Robin Hood when bank robbers destroyed all of the mortgage records at the banks they hit....."
1972 Venera 8 makes a soft landing on Venus.