1054 Siward of Northumbria and Malcolm defeat Macbeth at Dunsinane.
1245 Frederick II of France is deposed by a council at Lyons, which finds him guilty of sacrilege.
1663 The British Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, which requires all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.
1694 The Bank of England receives a royal charter as a commercial institution.
1742 The Peace of Berlin between Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Prussia ends the first Silesian War.
1768 Birth: Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary, assassin of Jean Paul Marat.
1777 US Revolutionary War: The Marquis of Lafayette arrives in New England to help fight the British.
1784 US Revolutionary War: "Cou8rier De L'Amerique" becomes the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. It is printed in Philadelphia, PA.
1789 The Department of Foreign Affairs is established by the US Congress. The agency is later known as the Department of State.
1793 French Revolution: Robespierre becomes a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
1794 French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre is overthrown and placed under arrest. He is executed the next day.
1801 Birth: George Biddle Airy, 7th Astronomer Royal.
1816 Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Florida, is attacked by US Troops.
1844 Fire destroys the US mint at Charlotte, North Carolina.
1861 US Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln replaces General Irwin McDowell with Union General George B. McClellen as head of the Army of the Potomac.
1866 Cyrus Field finally succeeds, after two failures, in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe. It is 1,686 miles long and is laid by the steamer Great Eastern. It establishes reliable communication by telegraph between the United States and England.
1890 Artist Vincent Van Gogh went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield With Flight Of Birds and shot himself. (See July 29)
1914 British troops invade the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and begin to disarm Irish rebels.
1915 Wireless communications are set up between Japan and the US
1918 The Socony 200 is launched. It is the first concrete barge and is used to carry oil.
1919 A race riot in Chicago leaves 15 whites and 23 blacks killed, with 500 others injured.
1921 Canadians Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin for the first time at the University of Toronto. It proves an effective treatment for diabetes.
1922 Adolf Hitler gets an early release from Stadelheim Prison in Munich. He had been sentenced on January 3rd for an on-stage attack upon the person of opponent Otto Ballerstedt. (See June 24) (Maser)
1924 The 8th Olympic games close in Paris.
1933 Church and Reich: Hitler tells Winifred Wagner that once he and the Nazis have achieved full power he will dissolve all the monasteries and confiscate church property.
1933 In London, the World Monetary and Economic Conference ends in failure. Roosevelt's lack of support is largely responsible.
1933 The Dutch Ministry of Justice allows the Committee for Jewish Interests to hold a lottery to benefit German Jewish refugees.
1935 Nazi leaders forbid individual anti-Jewish actions. All anti-Jewish measures must emanate from the Fuehrer's chancellery. (Edelheit)
1937 The trial of five German Jews accused of a 1929 ritual murder (blood libel) opens in Bamburg.
1938 Holocaust: All Jewish street names in Germany are changed and given new names. (Persecution)
1940 WW2: Hitler, hoping that Britain will now accept German control of the Continent, again seeks peace. Again, Britain shuns his overtures. (Grolier)
1940 Holocaust: Professor Lenz expresses his views on "euthanasia" in writing: "Detailed discussion of so-called euthanasia... can easily lead to confusion about whether or not we are really dealing with a matter which affects the safeguarding of our hereditary endowment. I should like to prevent any such discussion. For, in fact, this matter is a purely humanitarian problem." (Note: Between 1939 and 1941, Professor Lenz had proposed the following formulation for Article 2.1 of the proposed law on euthanasia "The life of a patient, who otherwise would need lifelong care, may be ended by medical measures of which he remains unaware.") (Science)
1940 Holocaust: German-Jewish mental patients are murdered in the Brandenburg extermination institute. (Days)
1940 July-August Dr. Jaspersen of Bethel attempts to persuade the heads of departments of psychiatry in German universities to make a collective protest against euthanasia. These professors make no move. Professor Ewald remains an isolated protester. (Science)
1941 WW2: Japanese forces land in Indochina.
1943 WW2: July 27-28 The RAF drops thousands of pounds of incendiary bombs of Hamburg, creating a "firestorm" for the first time. A firestorm occurs when the fires in a given area become so intense that they devour all oxygen nearby, creating hurricane force winds a they suck more oxygen in, feeding the fires and moving them along at great speed. (Three-quarters of Hamburg is burned to the ground. By some estimates, 50,000 German civilians are killed and 800,000 left homeless.)
1944 WW2: Several thousand AK soldiers are arrested by Soviets after laying down arms.
1944 WW2: The US regains possession of Guam from the Japanese and complete the liberation of Guam.
1953 Korea: The undeclared Korean War ends after three years of fighting between North Korean and Chinese Communists against the United Nations forces (mainly South Korean and American). An estimated four million people died, including nearly a million Chinese, 54,000 Americans, several thousand other UN troops and some two millions North and South Koreans. However, very little territory was actually gained or lost between the two sides. Peace talks had begun in the spring of 1951, but had been obstructed by two main issues: where to draw the truce-line between the two Koreas, and what to do with the prisoners of war. It was only in June 1953, that the two groups neared an agreement (at the UNâ€™s border, and a neutral commission to judge in the case of prisoners unwilling to be repatriated (sent back to their homeland against their wills, like refugees). On 27 July, the agreement ending the war, was signed at Panmunjon, Korea. The war lasted three years and 32 days. The truce negotiations between North Korean and US delegates (representing South Korea) lasted two years and seventeen days.
1954 Britain and Egypt initial an agreement to end British occupation of the Suez Canal Zone.
1955 Austria regains its sovereignty after 17 years of occupation by international troops, from 4 different countries.
1962 Mariner 2 is launched to Venus on a flyby mission.
1962 Martin Luther King Jr is jailed in Albany, Georgia.
1964 US President Lyndon 'Hey Hey' Johnson sends an additional 5,000 'advisers' to South Vietnam.
1964 Sir Winston Churchill makes a final appearance in the House of Commons.
1965 In the US, the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act is signed into law. The law requires health warnings on all cigarette packages. Note: If you must smoke, get the one's that say 'May Complicate Pregnancy' on the side. Beats throat polyps.
1969 Pioneer 10 is launched.
1976 After four years of intermittent tension, Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with Uganda, the first time in 30 years that a British government had taken such a drastic step against another country.
1980 Iranian Revolution: On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran (Shah Mohammed Reza Pahavala) dies from cancer while in exile, at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt. He is aged 60. The former Shah of Iran from 1941, he lost control of his country and fled in 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini succeeded him.
1982 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi becomes the first Inidian PM to visit to US in almost 11 years.
1989 The Common Cold Research Centre in Salisbury closes after giving colds to 30,000 people over 43 years.
1990 Belarus declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
1993 Israeli guns and aircraft pound southern Lebanon in a reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.
1995 The Korean War Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, DC, by US President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.
1995 The leaders of the three largest industrial labor unions in the United States, the United Automobile Workers, the United Steel Workers of America, and the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, vote to merge by the year 2000.
1996 Terror strikes the Atlanta Olympics as a pipe bomb explodes at the public Centennial Olympic Park, killing two people and injuring more than 100 others.
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