History: July 27

July 27

1054 Siward of Northumbria and Malcolm defeat Macbeth at Dunsinane.

1214 Battle of Bouvines: Philip II (Augustus) of France beat an allied English, Flemish and German army under Otto IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, that broke up the coalition and secured Philip's position.

1245 Frederick II of France is deposed by a council at Lyons, which finds him guilty of sacrilege.

1501 Copernicus is formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.

1586 Sir Walter Raleigh brings the first tobacco to England from Virginia.

1663 The British Parliament passes a second Navigation Act, which requires all goods bound for the colonies be sent in British ships from British ports.

1689 British forces defeat the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.

1694 The Bank of England receives a royal charter as a commercial institution.

1742 The Peace of Berlin between Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and Prussia ends the first Silesian War.

1768 Birth: Charlotte Corday, French revolutionary, assassin of Jean Paul Marat.

1775 US Revolutionary War: Benjamin Rush begins his service as the first Surgeon General of the Continental Army.

1777 US Revolutionary War: The Marquis of Lafayette arrives in New England to help fight the British.

1778 US Revolutionary War: British and French fleets fight to a standoff in the first Battle of Ushant.

1784 US Revolutionary War: "Cou8rier De L'Amerique" becomes the first French newspaper to be published in the United States. It is printed in Philadelphia, PA.

1789 The Department of Foreign Affairs is established by the US Congress. The agency is later known as the Department of State.

1793 French Revolution: Robespierre becomes a member of the Committee of Public Safety.

1794 French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre is overthrown and placed under arrest. He is executed the next day.

1801 Birth: George Biddle Airy, 7th Astronomer Royal.

1816 Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Florida, is attacked by US Troops.

1837 The US Mint opens in Charlotte, North Carolina.

1844 Fire destroys the US mint at Charlotte, North Carolina.

1861 US Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln replaces General Irwin McDowell with Union General George B. McClellen as head of the Army of the Potomac.

1866 Cyrus Field finally succeeds, after two failures, in laying the first underwater telegraph cable between North America and Europe. It is 1,686 miles long and is laid by the steamer Great Eastern. It establishes reliable communication by telegraph between the United States and England.

1890 Artist Vincent Van Gogh went to the spot where he had painted Cornfield With Flight Of Birds and shot himself. (See July 29)

1909 Orville Wright sets a record for the longest airplane flight. He is testing the first Army airplane and keeps it in the air for 1 hour 12 minutes and 40 seconds.

1914 British troops invade the streets of Dublin, Ireland, and begin to disarm Irish rebels.

1915 Wireless communications are set up between Japan and the US

1918 The Socony 200 is launched. It is the first concrete barge and is used to carry oil.

1919 A race riot in Chicago leaves 15 whites and 23 blacks killed, with 500 others injured.

1921 Canadians Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin for the first time at the University of Toronto. It proves an effective treatment for diabetes.

1922 Adolf Hitler gets an early release from Stadelheim Prison in Munich. He had been sentenced on January 3rd for an on-stage attack upon the person of opponent Otto Ballerstedt. (See June 24) (Maser)

1924 The 8th Olympic games close in Paris.

1932 Church and Reich: The Reverend Wilhelm Senn, one of the first Catholic priests to join the National Socialist Party, is suspended by the Catholic Church. Senn has broken a promise to submit all future writings to the censorship of the Church. (An article written by Senn earlier in the year had declared Hitler and his movement to be "instruments of divine providence.") (Lewy)

1933 Church and Reich: Hitler tells Winifred Wagner that once he and the Nazis have achieved full power he will dissolve all the monasteries and confiscate church property.

1933 In London, the World Monetary and Economic Conference ends in failure. Roosevelt's lack of support is largely responsible.

1933 The Dutch Ministry of Justice allows the Committee for Jewish Interests to hold a lottery to benefit German Jewish refugees.

1935 Nazi leaders forbid individual anti-Jewish actions. All anti-Jewish measures must emanate from the Fuehrer's chancellery. (Edelheit)

1937 The trial of five German Jews accused of a 1929 ritual murder (blood libel) opens in Bamburg.

1938 Holocaust: All Jewish street names in Germany are changed and given new names. (Persecution)

1939 Resistance: Dietrich Bonhoeffer returns to Germany and joins the political resistance.

1940 On this day, Bugs Bunny first appeared on the silver screen in "A Wild Hare." The wisecracking rabbit had evolved through several earlier short films. As in many future installments of Bugs Bunny cartoons, "A Wild Hare" featured Bugs as the would-be dinner for frustrated hunter Elmer Fudd. Cartoon animation first appeared in 1908 in France, followed quickly by American cartoons. In 1909, a newspaper cartoon artist named Winsor McCary created Gertie the Dinosaur, the first animated character to appear regularly on the screen. In 1918, McCary produced The Sinking of the Lusitania, the first feature-length cartoon. A variety of recurring cartoons developed by the late teens and early '20s, and these characters became more popular after the development of sound pictures in the late 1920s. Walt Disney introduced the Silly Symphonies cartoons and created Mickey Mouse and his gang. By the mid-1930s, Disney was making feature-length musical cartoons like Sleeping Beauty. Under the direction of animation director Tex Avery, Warner Brothers developed its own set of cartoon stars, including Bugs, Elmer, Tweety, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, and many others. Bugs was animated by Chuck Jones, and his famous accent came from legendary voice man Mel Blanc. Blanc started with Warner Bros. in 1937, creating the voices (or sounds) for Bugs, Road Runner, Sylvester, and Tweety Bird, among other characters.

1940 Fritz Thyssen is arrested by the Germans in France and is later sent to a concentration camp. He will not be liberated until 1945. Meanwhile, his book, I Paid Hitler, is published in America.

1940 WW2: Hitler, hoping that Britain will now accept German control of the Continent, again seeks peace. Again, Britain shuns his overtures. (Grolier)

1940 Holocaust: Professor Lenz expresses his views on "euthanasia" in writing: "Detailed discussion of so-called euthanasia... can easily lead to confusion about whether or not we are really dealing with a matter which affects the safeguarding of our hereditary endowment. I should like to prevent any such discussion. For, in fact, this matter is a purely humanitarian problem." (Note: Between 1939 and 1941, Professor Lenz had proposed the following formulation for Article 2.1 of the proposed law on euthanasia "The life of a patient, who otherwise would need lifelong care, may be ended by medical measures of which he remains unaware.") (Science)

1940 Holocaust: German-Jewish mental patients are murdered in the Brandenburg extermination institute. (Days)

1940 July-August Dr. Jaspersen of Bethel attempts to persuade the heads of departments of psychiatry in German universities to make a collective protest against euthanasia. These professors make no move. Professor Ewald remains an isolated protester. (Science)

1941 Barbarossa: Hitler orders Guderian's Panzers to turn south, away from Moscow, in order to conquer Russia's economic centers. Guderian's 2nd Panzer Army is renamed ArmeeGruppe Guderian in recognition of his successes. Further, he is no longer subordinate to Kluge, but answers directly to Bock, Commander of Army Group Centre. (Clark II)

1941 WW2: Japanese forces land in Indochina.

1943 WW2: July 27-28 The RAF drops thousands of pounds of incendiary bombs of Hamburg, creating a "firestorm" for the first time. A firestorm occurs when the fires in a given area become so intense that they devour all oxygen nearby, creating hurricane force winds a they suck more oxygen in, feeding the fires and moving them along at great speed. (Three-quarters of Hamburg is burned to the ground. By some estimates, 50,000 German civilians are killed and 800,000 left homeless.)

1944 WW2: Several thousand AK soldiers are arrested by Soviets after laying down arms.

1944 WW2: The first British jet fighter is used in combat, the Gloster Meteor.

1944 WW2: The US regains possession of Guam from the Japanese and complete the liberation of Guam.

1949 The 40-passenger British De Havilland Comet, the first jet-propelled airliner, makes its maiden flight.

1953 Korea: The undeclared Korean War ends after three years of fighting between North Korean and Chinese Communists against the United Nations forces (mainly South Korean and American). An estimated four million people died, including nearly a million Chinese, 54,000 Americans, several thousand other UN troops and some two millions North and South Koreans. However, very little territory was actually gained or lost between the two sides. Peace talks had begun in the spring of 1951, but had been obstructed by two main issues: where to draw the truce-line between the two Koreas, and what to do with the prisoners of war. It was only in June 1953, that the two groups neared an agreement (at the UN’s border, and a neutral commission to judge in the case of prisoners unwilling to be repatriated (sent back to their homeland against their wills, like refugees). On 27 July, the agreement ending the war, was signed at Panmunjon, Korea. The war lasted three years and 32 days. The truce negotiations between North Korean and US delegates (representing South Korea) lasted two years and seventeen days.

1954 Britain and Egypt initial an agreement to end British occupation of the Suez Canal Zone.

1955 Austria regains its sovereignty after 17 years of occupation by international troops, from 4 different countries.

1960 Vice President Richard Nixon is nominated for president at the Republican national convention in Chicago.

1962 Mariner 2 is launched to Venus on a flyby mission.

1962 Martin Luther King Jr is jailed in Albany, Georgia.

1964 US President Lyndon 'Hey Hey' Johnson sends an additional 5,000 'advisers' to South Vietnam.

1964 Sir Winston Churchill makes a final appearance in the House of Commons.

1965 In the US, the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act is signed into law. The law requires health warnings on all cigarette packages. Note: If you must smoke, get the one's that say 'May Complicate Pregnancy' on the side. Beats throat polyps.

1967 Long Hot Summer: In the wake of urban rioting, US President Lyndon Johnson appoints the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence.

1969 Pioneer 10 is launched.

1976 After four years of intermittent tension, Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with Uganda, the first time in 30 years that a British government had taken such a drastic step against another country.

1980 Iranian Revolution: On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, the deposed Shah of Iran (Shah Mohammed Reza Pahavala) dies from cancer while in exile, at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt. He is aged 60. The former Shah of Iran from 1941, he lost control of his country and fled in 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini succeeded him.

1982 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi becomes the first Inidian PM to visit to US in almost 11 years.

1987 John Demjanjuk, an accused Nazi, nicknamed "Ivan the Terrible", testifies in Israel.

1989 The Common Cold Research Centre in Salisbury closes after giving colds to 30,000 people over 43 years.

1990 Belarus declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

1992 Voters in the Seychelles, a long time refueling stop for the US Navy, give Socialist President Albert Rene an overwhelming victory in the island's first multiparty poll in 16 years.

1993 Israeli guns and aircraft pound southern Lebanon in a reprisal for rocket attacks by Hezbollah guerrillas.

1995 The Korean War Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington, DC, by US President Clinton and South Korean President Kim Young-sam.

1995 The leaders of the three largest industrial labor unions in the United States, the United Automobile Workers, the United Steel Workers of America, and the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, vote to merge by the year 2000.

1996 Terror strikes the Atlanta Olympics as a pipe bomb explodes at the public Centennial Olympic Park, killing two people and injuring more than 100 others.

2003 It is reported by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corp.) that there is definitely no monster in Loch Ness. The investigation uses 600 separate sonar beams and satellite navigation technology to trawl the loch. Though reports of sightings of the "Loch Ness Monster" began in the 6th century, one notes the rope around the creatures neck.


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