1629 The Puritans of Salem, Massachusetts appoint Francis Higginson as their teacher and Samuel Skelton as their pastor. The church covenant, composed afterward by these two men, allows into communion only those who can prove a sound doctrinal knowledge and an experience of grace in their lives.
1729 The least attractive major city in the US, Baltimore, is founded in Maryland.
1733 The Society of Freemasons opens its first American lodge, in Boston.
1792 French Revolution: The French national anthem La Marseillaise, by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, is first sung in Paris.
1799 The French garrison at Mantua, Italy, surrenders to the Austrians.
1822 Pioneer church founder James Varick, 72, is consecrated the first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.
1836 The first English newspaper is published in Hawaii.
1863 Birth: Henry Ford.
1863 US Civil War: President Lincoln issues an 'eye-for-eye' order, to shoot a rebel prisoner for every black prisoner shot.
1864 US Civil War: In an effort to penetrate the Confederate lines around Petersburg, Virginia. Union forces tried to take Petersburg, by exploding a mine under Confederate defense lines. The attack failed. The ensuing action became known as the Battle of the Crater.
1898 Corn Flakes are invented.
1909 The US Army accepts delivery of the first military airplane.
1909 Birth: Cyril Northcote Parkinson, in England, historian (Pursuit of Progress).
1913 The 2nd Balkan War ends.
1916 German saboteurs blow up a munitions plant on Black Tom Island, New Jersey.
1918 Captain Sarret makes the first ever parachute jump from a plane; 800ft.
1919 US Federal troops are called out to put down Chicago race riots.
1925 Johann Walthari Wölfl, the ONT Prior of Wefenstein, begins issuing the Librarium and the Examinatorium. The first contains short stories of the alleged medieval antecedents of the order, Burg Werfenstein and Lebensreform. The second features a question-and-answer synopsis of all order matters, enabling new brothers to quickly and comprehensively learn the order's history, traditions and ceremonial. (Roots)
1925 Construction begins on a new ONT priory at Gross-Oesingen in Lower Saxony. (Roots)
1933 The Hungarian government suppresses publication of Nemzet Szava (the Nation's Voice), the official organ of Hungarian Nazis.
1933 The Venizelist press in Greece begins an anti-Jewish campaign.
1938 Germany begins preparations for building new fortifications on its western border. A number of prohibited areas are established.
1938 George Eastman demonstrates his color motion picture process.
1939 Elections are held for the Twenty-first Zionist Congress to be held in Geneva.
1940 Birth: Patricia Schroeder, (Rep-D-Colorado).
1940 WW2: A bombing lull ends the first phase of the Battle of Britain.
1941 WW2: The Polish Government-in-Exile and Stalin sign an agreement for mutual aid in the war against Hitler, which includes an "amnesty for Polish citizens deprived of freedom on Soviet territory" and the formation of a Polish army under General Wladyslaw Anders, released from a Moscow prison.
1941 Diary of Leon Gladun: The USSR has negotiated a pact with the Polish Government-in-Exile in London. A Polish Army is being organized on the territory of the USSR. An amnesty for Polish prisoners.
1942 WW2: The WAVES are created by legislation signed by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The members of the Women's Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service are a part of the US Navy.
1942 WW2: The US Army Air Force joins in operations against Germany. B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators concentrate on high altitude daylight bombing, while the RAF strikes at night.
1942 WW2: Himmler assigns Paul Blobel, a former commander of one of his mobile killer groups (Einsatzgruppen) to find the most efficient means of destroying the evidence of Nazi atrocities. Working at Chelmno (Kulmhof) under the code name Sonderaktion 1005 (Special Command 1005), Blobel and a small staff began exhuming victims of the mobile gassing vans. They finally decide upon cremations over huge fireplaces. Any remaining bones are ground up in a special bone-crushing machine. The ashes and bone fragments are buried in the same pits from which the bodies had been disinterred. (Apparatus)
1945 A meeting of American nationalists and anti-Semites in Chicago leads to the formation and establishment of American Action, Inc.
1946 Nuremberg Trials: The defense of the seven indicted Nazi organizations begins. (Maser II)
1946 Birth: Arnold Schwarzenegger, in Austria, bodybuilder, actor, Governor of California.
1960 Over 60,000 Buddhists march in protest against the Diem government in South Vietnam.
1965 US President Johnson signs into law Social Security Act that establishes Medicare and Medicaid. It goes into effect the following year.
1967 Long Hot Summer: In a race riot in Milwaukee 4 are killed.
1974 Watergate: The House Judiciary Committee, by a vote of 21-17, approves a third article of impeachment against President Nixon, charging him with ignoring congressional subpoenas.
1976 The International Olympic Committee announces that three athletes are ejected from the 21st Olympiad games for using anabolic steroids.
1980 Zionism: The Israeli Knesset passes a law reaffirming all of Jerusalem as the capital of the Jewish State.
1984 The last 90 US Marine combat troops in Lebanon leave by sea.
1994 The United States, Germany, Britain, France and Russia decide to tighten sanctions on the Serb-dominated government in what remained of Yugoslavia.
1995 Russia and Chechen rebels sign an agreement calling for a gradual withdrawal of Russian troops and the disarmament of rebel fighters.
1997 Suicide bombers detonate two bombs in an outdoor market in West Jerusalem, killing themselves and 13 other people. Hamas, an extremist Palestinian group, claims responsibility.
1999 Linda Tripp, whose secretly recorded phone conversations with her friend and confidant Monica Lewinsky led to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton, is charged with illegal wiretapping. Unfortunately, prosecutors will later drop the charges.
2003 In Mexico, the last 'old style' Volkswagon Beetle rolls off the assembly line.
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