History: November 4

November 4

1307 The Swiss Confederation declares itself independent of Austria.

1520 Christian II of Denmark is crowned King of Sweden, and grants an amnesty to his opponents.

1605 In London, Guy Fawkes is arrested under the House of Commons preparing gunpowder to blow up the building when Parliament reassembles the next day.

1650 Birth: William III, British King, known as William of Orange.

1842 Abraham Lincoln weds Mary Todd in Springfield, Illinois. "...After a short visit to Springfield, Illinois in 1837, Mary returned in the fall of 1839 to stay with her oldest sister, Elizabeth Todd Edwards. She was looking for a husband and had many suitors, including Stephen A. Douglas, Lyman Trumbull, and a widower named Webb. She met Abraham Lincoln at a dance given by her sister. They were instantly attracted to each other. While authors have stressed the differences: temperament, cultural background, and education, they had much in common: both were ambitious, both were highly intelligent, and both were literature lovers, especially early Shakespeare and Burns. They became engaged in 1840, but Lincoln went through a deep depression because of what Mary would be giving up to marry him, and he broke their engagement on January 1, 1841. Both were very miserable apart, so friends brought them together, and they became secretly engaged again. Mary Todd married Abraham Lincoln in the front parlor of her sister’s mansion on November 4, 1842. The young couple went to live in Geobe Tavern until they bought a house on the corner of Eight and Jackson in 1844. Age at marriage: 23 years, 326 days. Personality: Intelligent, sharp-witted, with a wonderful gift of mimicry, Mary Lincoln was a good hostess, with a gift of putting her guests at ease. She was an ambitious wife, fiercely proud of her husband, but was quick to correct faults of manner that proclaimed his humbled background.

She was an indulgent mother but one who instilled a love of reading and poetry in her children, as well. Taddie, her youngest, was born with a cleft palate and she was very tender and indulgent with him, whom she called her "troublesome sunshine." If she had a favorite, it would have been Willie, her third, who had her love of books and poetry. As she grew older, her temper became more uncertain as her insecurities came to the foreground. She was very impulsive and sometimes spoke hastily, a fault she herself recognized. She had a mania for fine clothes and spent rashly, with good, but expensive taste. Her rash spending would become her downfall. She was a contradiction: strong but dependent on other's calmer personalities, fiercely proud but insecure in her self image, quick to flare but quick to repent..."

1846 An artificial leg is patented by B.F. Palmer of Meredith, New Hampshire.

1854 Florence Nightingale and a team of 38 nurses arrive in the Crimea to set up a hospital for British troops at Scutari.

1862 The first rapid-fire machine gun is patented by Richard Jordan Gatling in Indianapolis: The Gatling Gun.

1873 Dr. John B. Beers of San Francisco, California patents a gold crown for teeth.

1879 The first cash register is patented by James J. Ritty of Dayton, Ohio.

1884 Democrat Grover Cleveland is elected to his first term as president, defeating Republican James G. Blaine.

1890 The world's first electrified underground railway system is officially opened in London. The Prince of Wales travels on it from King William Street to the Oval. It runs from Stockwell in south London to King William Street (Bank). It is now part of the Northern Line. (Click here for Underground Map, and Underground History.)

1918 WW1: Austria-Hungary surrenders and hostilities come to an end.

1921 Weimar: Hundreds of Marxists attempt to disrupt a speech by Hitler at the Hofbrauhaus in Munich. Rudolf Hess takes a leading part in the brawl and suffers a skull injury.

1921 Japanese premier Hara Takashi is assassinated in Tokyo by a radical right-wing student.

1922 English archaeologist Howard Carter finds the first signs of what proved to be King Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Tombs of Kings in Egypt.

1924 Calvin Coolidge is elected as President of the United States, defeating John W. Davis.

1924 Nellie T. Ross of Wyoming is elected the nation's first woman governor; she is to serve the remaining term of William B. Ross, her husband who died in office.

1934 Weisthor (Wiligut) has found great favor with Himmler and is promoted to SS-Oberfuhrer (Lieutenant-Brigadier).

1936 President Roosevelt is reelected, carrying every state except Maine and Vermont.

1939 WW2: The American Neutrality Act is modified to allow the sale of arms to belligerents on a "Cash and Carry" basis. Only the British and French can benefit because of the terms and conditions imposed.

1943 WW2: Hitler ceases issuing numbered war directives.

1943 Holocaust: The trouble at Treblinka and Sobibor has so alarmed Himmler that in early November he orders the elimination of another potential source of insurrections. Some 42,000 Jews being kept alive as slave laborers at other kinds of camps in eastern Poland are shot. Thus Operation Reinhard comes to an end. During a nineteen month period, approximately 1.7 million people have died in the three "Reinhard" camps (Belsen, Treblinka, Sobibor), most of them in 1942. The ghettos have been practically eliminated, and scarcely any Jews remain in the Government General. The "new, and improved" gas chambers at Auschwitz will now be used to eliminate Jews from the rest of occupied Europe. (Apparatus)

1943 Church and Reich: Dr. Gertrud Luckner, an official of Caritas (the large Catholic philanthropic organization) in Freiburg, is arrested while trying to smuggle a sum of money to the few remaining Jews in Berlin. She had been helping Jews escape across the border into Switzerland for several years, and will spend the rest of the war in a concentration camp. (Lewy)

1946 Birth: Laura Welch Bush, wife of US President George W. Bush.

1952 Queen Elizabeth II opens her first Parliament.

1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president of the United States, ending 20 years of Democratic administration.

1956 Soviet troops move in to crush the Hungarian uprising. Imre Nagy is ousted as prime minister and replaced by Janos Kadar.

1977 The UN imposes a mandatory ban on arms supplies to South Africa in an effort to force the country out of Namibia.

1979 Iranian militants seize the US embassy in Tehran and capture 90 hostages; 52 are held captive for 444 days.

1979 Iran Hostage Crisis: "...Iranian militants stormed the United States Embassy in Tehran and took approximately seventy Americans captive. This terrorist act triggered the most profound crisis of the Carter presidency and began a personal ordeal for Jimmy Carter and the American people that lasted 444 days. President Carter committed himself to the safe return of the hostages while protecting America's interests and prestige. He pursued a policy of restraint that put a higher value on the lives of the hostages than on American retaliatory power or protecting his own political future..."

1980 Ronald Reagan is elected 40th President of the United States in a landslide victory over incumbent Jimmy Carter.

1982 The UN passes a resolution calling on Argentina and Britain to discuss sovereignty of the Falkland Islands.

1983 In Lebanon, over 40 Israeli soldiers are killed when an Arab suicide bomber drives a truck full of explosives into their camp.

1986 Democrats regain control of the US Senate, 55-45.

1988 An attempted coup by foreign mercenaries on the Maldive Islands is thwarted when Indian paratroopers crush the revolt.

1991 Former President Reagan opens his library in Simi Valley, California, with a dedication ceremony attended by President Bush and former presidents Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon.

1991 Former First Lady Imelda Marcos returns to the Philippines, ending more than five years of exile in United States.

1994 The UN Security Council votes unanimously to withdraw the remaining 17,000 UN troops from Somalia by mid-March 1995.

1995 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a right-wing Israeli after attending a peace rally in Tel Aviv.

1997 The Republicans sweep the off-year elections, with New Jersey Governor Christie Whitman winning reelection, James Gilmore becoming Virginia governor, Vito Fossella taking the New York congressional seat vacated by Susan Molinari, and Rudy Giuliani being reelected mayor of New York.

2001 Intense bombing by US-led forces pound the Afghan capital of Kabul while US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, on a tour of the region, told reporters in Uzbehistan that strikes on Taliban targets were showing 'measurable progress'.

2001 US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld discusses a dramatic enlargement of US troops to be deployed in Central Asia with leaders from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan during weekend talks. Rumsfeld's travels take him over Afghanistan, on a day that coincides with the heaviest bombing of the Taliban front line to date.

2001 Amr Moussa, the Secretary-General of the Arab League denounces bin Laden's TV statement, saying he "does not speak in the name of Arabs and Muslims."

2001 Egypt's Foreign Minister described bin Laden as being at war with the "whole world."









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