History: November 6

November 6

1429 Henry VI is crowned king of England, seven years after acceding to the throne at the age of eight months. Two years later he will also be crowned King of France in Paris. (Bradley)

1632 Thirty Years' War: Sweden's King Gustavus II is killed during the Battle of Lutzen.

1789 Following the American Revolution, Father John Carroll, 54, is appointed the first Roman Catholic bishop in the newly organized and independent United States of America. (Bradley)

1812 The first winter snow falls on the French Army as Napoleon retreats from Moscow. Or perhaps he was actually advancing on Paris. (Eyewitness account of French retreat from Moscow : Jean-Roch )

1814 Birth: Antoine-Joseph dit Adolphe Sax, in Belgium, musician, instrument maker; will invent of the saxophone in 1840.

1825 Birth: C. F. Theodore Steinweg, will be considered the 'Father of the Modern Piano', (Steinway).

1851 Birth: Charles Henry Dow, in Sterling, Connecticut, the son of a farmer. He will grow up to become a journalist, working on the Springfield Republican, the Providence Star, the Providence Evening Press, and the Providence journal. He will move to New York City in 1880 and become a reporter for the Kiernan News Agency, a financial news service. Dow will remember a friend and fellow writer from his days at the Evening Press named Edward D. Jones and will bring him into the company. By 1882, they will develop their own ideas about how to report financial news. They form their own company in a basement on Wall Street, next to the stock exchange. The firm, known as Dow Jones and Company, delivers news by messenger to the financial wizards of Wall Street. By 1889, the handwritten bulletins will have evolved into The Wall Street journal, a four-page afternoon paper. On 26 May 1896, Dow and Jones will launch the Dow Jones Industrial Average, then a daily composite of 12 "smokestack" companies that produce coal, leather, cotton, and sugar. A year later, they will come out with a ticker to provide instant stock market updates. The first publication of an average comparable to today's 30 industrial stocks will be on 1 October 1928. The Dow will close that day at 240.01. (Bradley)

1854 Birth: John Philip Sousa, in Washington DC, "The March Master", American bandmaster and composer. Among his 140 marches; Stars and Stripes Forever and Semper Fidelis. (Bradley)

1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected the sixteenth (16th) president of the United States over a heavily divided Democratic Party, becoming the first Republican to win the presidency. Lincoln receives only 40 percent of the popular vote, but handily defeats the three other candidates. Lincoln, a Kentucky-born lawyer and one-time representative to Congress from Illinois, first gained national stature during his campaign against Senator Douglas for the Illinois senate seat. The senatorial campaign featured a remarkable series of public encounters on the issue of slavery, known as the Lincoln-Douglas debates, in which Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery and Douglas maintained that each territory should decide whether it should be a free or slave state. Lincoln lost the senate race, but on this day defeats Douglas in his bid for the presidency. Announcement of Lincoln's victory signals the secession of the Southern states, and by the time of his inauguration, seven states have seceded and the Confederate States of America has been established with Jefferson Davis as the elected president. One month later, the American Civil War will officially begin when Confederate forces under General P. G. T. Beauregard open fire on Union held Sumter in South Carolina. (Bradley)

1861 Jefferson Davis is elected to a six-year term as president of the Confederacy. "...Jefferson Davis was born on June 3, 1808, in Christian (now Todd) County, Kentucky, and educated at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky. Military History U.S. Military Academy Graduated 1828. Afterwards was in the frountier service. Health forced him to resign from the army in 1835. Fought in the Mexican War at Monterrey and Buena Vista. Wounded at Buena Vista. Political History: US senator from Mississippi from 1835 to 1845. US Congressman from 1845 to 1846. US Congressman from 1857 to 1861. Withdrew from the Senate in 1861 when Mississippi seceded. On February 18, 1861, the provisional Congress of the Confederate States made him provisional president. He was elected to the office by popular vote the same year (this day) for a 6-year term and was inaugurated in Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederacy, on February 22, 1862.

During the War Davis failed to raise sufficient money to fight the American Civil War and could not obtain recognition and help for the Confederacy from foreign governments. He was in constant conflict with extreme exponents of the doctrine of states' rights, and his attempts to have high military officers appointed by the president were opposed by the governors of the states. The judges of state courts constantly interfered in military matters through judicial decisions. Davis was nevertheless responsible for the raising of the formidable Confederate armies, the notable appointment of General Robert E. Lee as commander of the Army of Virginia, and the encouragement of industrial enterprise throughout the South. His zeal, energy, and faith in the cause of the South were a source of much of the tenacity with which the Confederacy fought the Civil War..."

1861 Birth: James Naismith, Canadian physical education instructor; will invent the game of basketball in 1891.

1863 US Civil War: A Union force surrounds and scatters defending Confederates at the Battle of Droop Mountain, in West Virginia.

1869 Diamonds are first discovered at Kimberley, South Africa, leading to the construction of the world's largest mine, the Big Hole. Mined to a depth of 215 metres, and with a surface area of +/-17 hectares and a perimeter of +/- 1.6 km, it is the largest hand-dug excavation in the world. On 14 August 1914 work on the mine will be suspended. By that time 22.5 million tons of earth will have been excavated, yielding 2,722 kilograms of diamonds. (Bradley)

1888 Benjamin Harrison of Indiana wins the presidential election, beating incumbent Grover Cleveland on electoral votes although Cleveland leads in the popular vote.

1891 Death: The only 7th Cavalry horse to survive George Armstrong Custer's Last Stand at the Little Bighorn, Comanche, at Fort Riley, Kansas.

1893 Death: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, in St. Petersburg, Russia, at 53. He imagined towards the end of his life that his head was falling off and used to hold it with one hand while conducting.

1911 After leading the revolution against dictator Porfirio Diaz, Francisco Madero assumes the office of president of Mexico.

1911 Maine becomes a dry state.

1913 Mohandas K. Gandi is arrested as he leads a march of Indian miners in South Africa.

1917 WW1: After more than 3 months of fighting at Ypres and a total advance of 8 km (5 miles), the British offensive comes to an end with the capture of the ridge and village of Passchendaele. More importantly, it distracts German attention, from the collapsing French armies, thus helping to prevent a German victory in 1917. The British suffer more than 300,000 casualties, the French about 9,000, and the Germans about 260,000.

1917 WW1: Allenby strikes north, launching the Desert Mounted Corps across the country toward the sea. The Turks evacuated Gaza in time to avoid the trap, but are closely pursued by Allenby.

1917 Russian Revolution: Lenin reappears to direct the revolution in Petrograd (October 24, O.S.).

1918 WW1: American spearheads reach the Meuse River before Sedan and sever the Mezieres-Montmedy rail line, a vital supply artery for the entire German front.

1923 Weimar: As European inflation soars, one loaf of bread in Berlin is reported to be worth about 140 billion German marks.

1924 Tory leader Stanley Baldwin is elected Prime Minister. He soon appoints Winston Churchill, formerly a Liberal, as his Chancellor of the Exchequer.

1928 Jacob Schick obtains a patent for the first electric razor.

1928 Herbert Hoover is elected President of the US with 21,392,190 votes to Al Smith's 15,016,443.

1928 The first Motogram machine is installed; on the New York Times Building. It shows presidential election results via an electric flasher. (Herbert Hoover beat Alfred E. Smith).

1930 Nov 6-Dec 9 The Preparatory Commission on disarmament holds its final meetings.

1932 Weimar: New elections in Germany fail to break a parliamentary deadlock. The National Socialists lose 34 seats, down 229 seats to 195 (and two million votes), while the Communists increase theirs from 88 to 100.

1933 The Conference of Anglo-Jewish organizations in London approves the anti-Nazi boycott.

1937 Italy joins the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact. This grouping prefigures their later alliance structure in World War II.

1938 Hitler delivers a speech in Weimar. "WHAT seems to us almost a miracle as we look back upon it is nothing else than the reward for infinite and unceasing labor…And now for that labor we have received from Providence our reward, just as the Germany of 1918 received its reward. At that time Germany shared in those blessings which we think of under the collective idea Democracy. But Germany has learned that democracy in practice is a different thing from democracy in theory..."

1939 Volkishness: Himmler departs for Munich to prepare for the annual Blutzeuge celebration to commemorate the 1923 putsch. (Architect)

1939 Holocaust: Gestapo rounds up 183 professors of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and sends them to Sachsenhausen concentration camp near Berlin. In Luck County, Ukrainian peasants murder 200 Polish refugees from Nazism, who are offered accommodations and then killed.

1940 Church and Reich: Cardinal Faulhaber submits a letter of protest to Minister of Justice Gürtner. Faulhaber writes that despite all attempts at secrecy, everyone now knows that large numbers of patients are being killed in the course of a compulsory euthanasia program. The killing of these innocent people, Faulhaber concludes his letter, raises a moral issue which can not be ignored. (Lewy)

1942 Holocaust: Approximately 10,000 Jews from Chelm are sent to Sobibor. (Atlas)

1942 Holocaust: Himmler gives his support to a plan to establish a collection of Jewish skulls and skeletons at the Reich Anatomical Institute in Strasbourg, not far from Natzweiler concentration camp. (Atlas) (see June 21, 1943)

1943 WW2: After more than two years of German rule, The Russians retake Kiev.

1947 Meet the Press debuts.

1956 President Eisenhower is reelected, beating Democrat Adlai E. Stevenson.

1962 The UN General Assembly adopts a resolution condemning South Africa for its apartheid policies and recommending member states apply economic sanctions.

1970 Italy and China establish diplomatic relations.

1975 Death: Ernst 'Putzi' Hanfstaengl, Hitler's personal friend who from 1922; introduced Hitler into Munich society; became NSDAP foreign press chief in 1931. Alienated from Hitler in 1937 by what was, by some accounts, a mean-spirited practical joke, he went first to England and then the United States. During WWII, he became an advisor to Roosevelt and the Hearst press. Returned to Germany in 1946 and lived in Munich until his death on this day.

1975 King Hassan launches the 'Green March' with 350,000 unarmed Moroccans waving flags and copies of the Koran crossing into Western Sahara. Spain agrees days later to transfer administration to Morocco and Mauritania.

1980 Voyager I sends back color pictures of Saturn.

1982 Shirley Allen is arrested for poisoning her husband, Lloyd Allen, with ethyl glycol, commonly known as antifreeze. After witnessing her mother spike Lloyd's drinks with the deadly substance, Shirley's own daughter turns her in to the authorities. Lloyd Allen was Shirley's sixth husband and the second to die from mysterious causes; the other four had divorced her. John Gregg, who died a year after he married Shirley in 1977, had changed the beneficiary on his life insurance policy shortly before his death. Shirley was outraged to find that she was left with nothing. Lloyd, who had complained of a strange taste in his beverages, believed Shirley when she said that it was an iron supplement for his health. However, Joe Sinclair, a previous husband, was a bit more suspicious. When his coffee tasted odd on several occasions, he went to the police. Although he suffered internal injuries, no charges were ever filed. Instead, he filed for a divorce. When Allen's death was investigated, toxicology reports confirmed that his body tissue contained a lethal amount of ethyl glycol. After a short four-day trial, Shirley Allen was sentenced to life in prison. (Bradley)

1984 For the first time in 193 years, the New York Stock Exchange remains open during a presidential election day. The Dow Jones industrial average jumps almost 15 points on sales of 101.2 million shares.

1984 Walter Mondale concedes as President Reagan is elected to a second term, winning 49 states.

1986 Former US Navy radioman John A. Walker Jr. is sentenced to life in prison for leading a family spy ring.

1986 Iran-Contra: The Iran arms-for-hostages deal is revealed, damaging the Reagan administration.

1986 President Reagan signs the landmark immigration reform bill, the first US immigration law authorizing penalties for employers who hire illegal aliens.

1988 A virus spread by a 23-year-old graduate whose father heads the country's computer security agency, cripples 6,000 US Defense Department computers.

1990 Nawaz Sharif is sworn in as Pakistan's new prime minister amid charges of vote-rigging from ousted premier Benazir Bhutto.

1990 In the general election, the Democrats wrest governorships from Republicans in Texas and Florida, but lose a third key race in California.

1990 A gunman opens fire as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev presides over the Revolution Day parade. Gorbachev is not hurt.

1991 The Ukraine signs the Soviet economic-union treaty at the Kremlin.

1991 Kuwait celebrates the dousing of the last of the oil fires ignited by Iraq during the Persian Gulf War.

1992 A presidential commission calls on the US Congress to restore laws against women combat pilots repealed the previous year.

1995 Numerous world leaders gather in Jerusalem for the funeral of assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. He was assassinated by a fellow Jew who opposed peace with Palestinians.

1996 The Republican and Democratic Party chairmen meet at the National Press Club in Washington DC, to 'bury the hatchet'.

1997 President Clinton and three of the four living former Presidents of the United States attend the dedication of the George Bush Presidential Library and Museum at Texas A&M University at College Station, Texas. Nancy Reagan stands in for her husband, who cannot attend.

1999 Australian voters reject, by a narrow majority, the establishment of a republic and the replacement of the Queen as head of state.

2001 For the first time since the Second World War, in a cause beyond peacekeeping, Germany commits 3,900 soldiers to the war on terrorism.

2001 US President George W. Bush issues a warning of a potential threat "to civilization itself" in a satellite speech to eastern and central European countries. Bush adds that the coalition must prevent Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda network from acquiring weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons.

2001 British PM Tony Blair declares that the al-Qaeda have "virtually merged" with the Taliban regime, thus negating the chance for negotiations.

2001 The Northern Alliance claims the capture of strategic areas near the northern Afghanistan city of Mazar-e-Sharif.

2001 The FBI says the intelligence behind the warnings that terrorists might attack US West Coast bridges is not credible.








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