History: November 8

November 8

1520 King Christian II orders the massacre of Swedish bishops and nobles in what will become known as the "Stockholm Bloodbath," helping to incite a Swedish war of liberation against Danish rule.

1656 Birth: Edmund Halley, British astronomer.

1674 Death: John Milton, British poet, whose works include Paradise Lost, in London.

1793 Four years after the French Revolution, the former Royal Palace, The Louvre, is opened in Paris to the public by the Revolutionary government as a museum. It contains one of the world's richest art collections.

1830 Ferdinand II becomes King of the Two Sicilies.

1837 Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts becomes the first American college founded exclusively for women.

1847 Birth: Bram Stoker, Irish writer whose works will include Dracula.

1864 US Civil War: Abraham Lincoln is elected to his second term as president.

1884 Samuel Sidney McClure establishes McClure's Syndicate in New York City, the first newspaper syndicate.

1889 Montana becomes the 41st US state.

1895 Wilhelm Rontgen discovers X-Rays during an experiment at the University of Wurzburg. He is experimenting with the flow of electricity through a partially evacuated glass tube.

1910 Franklin Delano Roosevelt enters politics as he is elected to the New York State senate.

1917 Russian Revolution: By evening, Petrograd is firmly in the hands of the Bolsheviks. A new Government headed by Lenin is quickly organized. Trotsky becomes Commissar for Foreign Affairs and Stalin Commissar for Minorities. They soon take the name: Council of the People's Commissars. Fighting in Moscow will continue for several more days.

1917 Russian Revolution: The Second All Russia Congress of Soviets proposes that all combatant nations begin immediate negotiations on concluding a just, democratic peace without annexations or indemnities. (Polyakov)

1917 Russian Revolution: Kerensky escapes to Finland, and then travels on to Paris. He will eventually settle in New York City.

1918 Weimar: Karl Liebknecht proclaims a Soviet republic from the balcony of the Berlin Palace as hundreds of thousands of Berliners surge into the streets and charge the center of town shouting revolutionary slogans under red banners. The mob murders scores of army officers and occupies the Ministry of War and nearly all the important governmental buildings.

1918 Weimar: Philipp Scheidemann, a Social Democrat and cabinet member, hastily proclaims a republic in order to prevent a Communist takeover, he says, by Karl Liebknecht and his extreme Spartacus League. Frederich Ebert, another Social Democrat, reportedly is outraged. A constitutional monarchy had already been agreed upon, not a republic.

1923 The Munich Putsch: Hitler, with the backing of General Ludendorff, attempts to take over the Bavarian government by force of arms. Hitler claims that his main purpose is to squash a plot by Bavarian separatist to secede from Germany. Around eleven o'clock this morning, approximately three thousand storm troopers follow Hitler and Ludendorff on their way to the center of Munich. They meet up with a group of police who let them pass after having been given an ultimatum by Goering that if they are not allowed to pass, hostages will be shot.

Then the column arrives at the narrow Residenzstrasse. At the other end of the street, a large group of police wait. Hitler is in the front with his left arm linked with the right arm of Scheubner-Richter. Graf shouts to the police to inform them that Ludendorff is present. Then a shot rings out. No one is sure which side fires the first shot. Scheubner-Richter is one of the first to be hit. Mortally wounded and with his arm linked with Hitler, Hitler goes down too. The fall dislocates Hitler's shoulder. The shooting lasts approximately sixty seconds. Ludendorff keeps walking. As everyone else falls to the ground or seeks cover, Ludendorff defiantly marches straight ahead. He and his adjutant, Major Streck, march right through the line of police. He is very angry that no one had followed him and is soon arrested by the police. Goering had been wounded in the groin. After some initial first aid by two helpful Jewish women, he is spirited off and smuggled into Austria. He will remain in exile for years, fighting a recurring infection from the wounds of this day and beginning the cycle of heroin addiction that would plague his life. Hess also flees to Austria. Roehm surrenders. Hitler, though not really wounded, is one of the first to leave, spirited off by his compatriots. Taken to the home of the Hanfstaengls, he is hysterical and depressed, contemplating suicide. Two days later, Hitler is arrested. According to different reports, between fourteen and sixteen Nazis and three policemen die during the Putsch.

1924 Weimar: Hitler, Lt. Colonel Hermann Kriebel, Dr. Christian Weber, Rudolf Hess and other putschers in Landsberg prison celebrate the first anniversary of the Munich putsch, with the prison band supplying the music. At exactly 8:34 PM, they commemorate the "historic moment" the trucks arrived carrying the Hitler Shocktroops. (Missing Years)

1927 Volkishness: The ONT presbytery of Hertesburg is consecrated in a new wooden church built on the site of the ancient earthwork near Prerow on the Baltic Sea coast. This circle continues to be lead by Georg Hauerstein, Jr., who writes that its foundation is related to medieval Templar lore, as well as the mythical sunken city of Retha-Vineta, supposedly the cradle of the "ario-heroic" race. (Hauerstein; Roots)

1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected President of the US with 27, 831,857 votes to Herbert Hoover's 15,761,841.

1933 Nadir Shah, ruler of Afghanistan, is assassinated and succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah.

1933 Hitler takes part in various gatherings of Alte Kämpfer, (old fighters) in Munich, including meetings in the Braunes Haus (Strosstrupp Hitler) and the Sternecker, the birthplace of the NSDAP.

1934 Nov 8-9 The second annual celebration in memory of the failed putsch of 1923 takes place in Munich. The incidents of June 30 cast a dark shadow over the festivities and Hitler cancels the commemorative march to the Feldherrnhalle. An excerpt from his speech at the Burgerbraukeller: "And for that reason we were resolved back then to act first. We did not intend to stage a coup. But I made one decision: if the opposition goes so far that I know they will strike. I will strike four days earlier. And if people say to me, "Yes, but think of the consequences!" my reply is, "The consequences could never have been worse than if no action had been taken..."

1934 Pierre Flandin succeeds M. Doumerque as French prime minister.

1936 The National Christian Party stages the largest anti-Semitic demonstration in Romanian History.

1937 Holocaust: Goebbel's propaganda Ministry sponsors Der Ewige Jew (The Eternal Jew) an anti-Jewish exposition under the direction of Julius Streicher. It closes on February 4, 1938.

1938 Holocaust: Himmler addresses a select meeting of high-ranking SS leaders in Munich. He does not mention the vom Rath assassination, but tells them that within 10 years there will be unprecedented clashes -- not only a struggle among nations, but also an ideological struggle against the Jews, Freemasons, Marxists and Catholics worldwide. (Architect)

1939 WW2: Hitler tells a meeting of "Old Fighters" in Munich, "What were the aims of Britain in the last war? Britain said she was fighting for justice. Britain has been fighting for justice for three hundred years. As a reward God gave her 40 million square kilometers of the world and 480 million people to dominate." (Payne)

1939 WW2: A bomb supposedly intended for Hitler explodes at the Burgebraukeller in Munich. Hitler had cut short his speech and abruptly left shortly before the explosion. Eight are killed and sixty are injured in the blast. Johann Georg Elser (above), a carpenter from Württemberg, is arrested a week later. The Nazis are convinced he is involved in a British plot with Otto Strasser, who was in Switzerland and returned to England soon after the explosion. Note: The British claim Hitler, himself, staged this explosion to gain the propaganda value.

1939 WW2: Two British spies are arrested for espionage at Venlo on the Dutch-German border by the Germans, who capture a list of British agents and use it to make numerous arrests of British agents in Czechoslovakia and other occupied countries.

1939 Holocaust: Hans Frank becomes Governor General of Poland. He quickly encourages the persecution of the Jews.

1942 WW2: Nov 8-9 "Operation Torch" US and British forces land in strength in French Morocco and Algeria. Timed to coincide with Montgomery's offensive, the operation places them in a position to attack Rommel's Afrika Korps from the west. More than 400,000 Allied soldiers take part in the invasion.

1942 WW2: The nineteenth anniversary eve of the Munich Putsch. Hitler's speech, Berlin: "And in the beginning I did not have much more to give than faith. The faith that if anyone pursues a just aim I with unchanging and undisturbed loyalty and never lets himself be diverted from it, but puts everything into it, then others will be found who are determined to be his followers. And that from this host an ever stronger faith must gradually radiate to the whole people, and that out of this host the worthiest part of the whole people must one day finally find themselves together, and that finally this worthiest part must acquire the power in the state. And today I stand by this same view. Fate, or Providence, will give the victory to those who most deserve it..."

1942 Stalingrad: Attack orders finally issued. By evening, however, the start-date is put off by one week because of delays in shifting troops and supplies. (Messenger)

1942 Holocaust: Germans massacre over 70 people from 22 Polish families named Trusiewicz and Domalewski for sheltering Jews in Oborki near Luck.

1943 WW2: The twentieth anniversary eve of the Munich Putsch. Hitler's annual address: "The widespread belief that it might be possible to appease the Bolshevist colossus by renouncing all thoughts of strength, and that a Europe dedicated to peace which continued to progressively disarm would have foiled Bolshevist Russia's plans for world conquest, is just as stupid. My fellow party members, to me this is like the story of the chicken and the geese who one day solemnly assured the fox that they no longer intended to attack him, in the hope that they could thus turn the fox into a vegitarian..."

1960 In one of the closest presidential elections in US history, Senator John F. Kennedy, a Democrat from Massachusetts, wins 49.7-percent of the popular vote, surpassing by a fraction the 49.6-percent received by Vice President Richard M. Nixon, a Republican.

1966 Actor and future US President Ronald Reagan is elected governor of California.

1972 West and East Germany end 23 years of Cold War antagonism by initialing a good-neighbour treaty which pledges mutual respect for the existence of two sovereign German states.

1979 A new late-night news program debuts on ABC-TV. The program, The Iran Crisis: America Held Hostage, is expected to be on the schedule only temporarily, according to ABC News chief Roone Arledge. Instead, the program, with Ted Koppel hosting, evolves into Nightline in March of 1980.

1984 The first attempt to rescue two crippled satellites takes place as the space shuttle Discovery lifts off from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The mission is accomplished on 14 November.

1988 Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush is elected the 41st president of the United States, defeating Michael Dukakis.

1990 William Bennett resigns as President Bush's national drug policy adviser.

1991 The European Community imposes an economic embargo on Yugoslavia in an effort to halt the civil war.

1994 For the first time in 40 years, the Republican Party wins control of both the US House of Representatives and the Senate in midterm congressional elections. Led by Representative Newt Gingrich of Georgia, who subsequently replaces Democrat Tom Foley of Washington as speaker of the House, the empowered GOP unites under the 'Contract with America', a 10-point legislative plan to reduce federal taxes, balance the budget, and dismantle social welfare programs established during six decades of mostly Democratic rule in Congress.

1995 Retired Army General Colin Powell declares he will not seek the presidency.

1998 John Glenn gives a press conference after landing at the Kennedy Space center after becoming the oldest person to go into space.

1998 About 350,000 people rally in Berlin against racist violence.

2001 A top aide says that President Bush has 'no plans' to meet with Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat at the UN General Assembly in New York because in the American view, Arafat has not done enough to stop the violence in Israel and the West Bank.

2001 US air strikes reportedly kill 85 Islamic militants and a Taliban commander near Mazar-e-Sharif. US commander, General Tommy Franks, declares that a "big fight" is continuing for the strategic northern stronghold. The fall of Mazar, with its supply routes and large airfield, could trigger the arrival of US ground forces for a northern bridgehead.

2001 President Bush tours the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, and in a nationally televised speech declares "This great nation will never be intimidated." Bush closes with, "My fellow Americans, let's roll." (Go to President Bush in Atlanta for the full text and images of his November 8th speech.)








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