History: November 10

November 10

1483 Birth: Martin Luther, religious leader and reformer who will begin the Protestant Reformation. (Bradley)

1697 Birth: William Hogarth, painter, engraver.

1775 The US Marine Corps is authorized under authority of the Continental Congress.

1793 Birth: Jared Kirtland, physician, naturalist.

1801 The state of Tennessee outlaws the practice of dueling.

1871 Henry M. Stanley, journalist and explorer, finds David Livingstone, a missing Scottish missionary in central Africa, and delivers his now famous greeting.

1885 Paul Daimler becomes the world's first biker when he rides his father Gottlieb's new invention for six miles.

1909 Louis Brennan had patented his invention for a gyroscopically balanced car (monorail) in 1903. A demonstration is given for the press on this day at Gillingham, UK.

1916 WW1: An Italian corps pushes an Austrian corps north and links with Sarrail's main body at Lake Ochrida in Albania.

1917 41 suffragists are arrested in front of the White House.

1918 Weimar: The military High Command and the new German republic strike a deal. The generals promise to protect this new republic, even though they despise its very existence. Ebert, in return, promises to prevent the socialist revolution threatening to turn Germany into another Russia.

1928 Hirohito is crowned Emperor of Japan. He had effectively become head of state and named Regent when his father became ill in 1920. He will rule until his death in 1989.

1930 Four elephants run amok during the Lord Mayor's show in London, injuring 30 people. (Bradley)

1933 Hitler makes a campaign speech to workers of the Siemens plant in Berlin-Siemensstadt, proclaiming to his audience that he is one of them.

1933 Martial law is declared in Austria.

1938 Hitler, in a speech to hundreds of German journalists, discounts the prospects for peace and urges the press to help persuade the German public to support his regime in the event of any future war. (Architect)

1938 Holocaust: The Gestapo closes the Central Organization of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith. (Edelheit)

1939 Church and Reich: The Papal Nunzio in Berlin delivers the special personal congratulations of Pope Pius on Hitler's miraculous escape from the assassination attempt of November 8. (Lewy)

1939 The first air-conditioned automobiles go on display at the Auto Show in Chicago.

1940 Birth: Russell Means, activist.

1942 WW1: Buoyant after the desert victory at El Alamein, British Prime Minister Churchill proclaims: "This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning."

1942 WW2: Hitler, Laval and Ciano meet in Munich to discuss the situation in North Africa.

1944 Diary of Leon Gladun: Predappio Nuovo (380 meters). Our 25th new position in a row. On this occasion we celebrate with a little drinking in the divisional PD. We were stationed here for quite a while.

1951 Direct-dial, coast-to-coast telephone service begins as Mayor M. Leslie Denning of Englewood, New Jersey, calls his counterpart in Alameda, California.

1954 The Iwo Jima Memorial is dedicated in Arlington, Virginia.

1960 Britain and Romania sign a financial agreement providing for final settlement of British claims arising from their 1947 peace treaty.

1960 The Royal Shakespeare Company is formed under director Peter Hall.

1960 Penguin's initial print run of 200,000 of Lady Chatterley's Lover sells out on the first day.

1964 Kenya becomes a one-party state by consent.

1968 The USSR launches Zond 6 Circumlunar. (See Nov 17)

1970 Luna 17 is launched to the Moon by the USSR.

1975 The SS Edmund Fitzgerald sinks 17 miles from the entrance to Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior (Native Americans know it as Gitche Gumee), taking all 29 crew members with her. At the time of its launch in 1958, the 729-foot-long freighter was the largest and fastest ship on the Great Lakes. The Edmund Fitzgerald began its last journey on 9 November 1975, carrying 26,116 tons of iron-ore pellets. On this day, the ship and her crew meet a storm with 60mph winds and waves in excess of 15 feet. Captain Ernest McSorley steers the ship north, heading for the safety of Whitefish Bay, but the ship's radar fails, and the storm takes out the power to Whitefish Point's radio beacon, leaving the Fitzgerald traveling blind. In the heavy seas, the vessel is also taking on a dangerous amount of water. Another ship, the Anderson, keeps up radio contact with the Fitzgerald and tries to lead it to safety but to no avail. Just after 7pm on 10 November, the Fitzgerald makes its last radio transmission. Presumably, the ship, which is taking on water, is forced lower and lower into the water until its bow pitches down into the lake and the vessel is unable to recover. None of the 29 men aboard survive. The Edmund Fitzgerald now lies under 530 feet of water, broken in two sections. On 4 July 1995, the ship's bell will be recovered from the wreck, and a replica, engraved with the names of the crew members who perished in this tragedy, will be left in its place. The original bell is on display at the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum at Whitefish Point in Michigan. (Bradley)

1975 The UN General Assembly approves a resolution equating Zionism with racism. The world body will repeal the resolution in December 1991.

1976 The Utah Supreme Court gives the go-ahead for convicted murderer Gary Gilmore to be executed, according to his wishes. The sentence will be carried out the following January. (Bradley)

1982 As part of a four-day national salute to Americans who served in the Vietnam War, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, designed by architect Maya Lin, is dedicated in Washington, DC The long-awaited memorial is a simple black granite wall, inscribed with the names of the 58,183 Americans who died in the conflict, arranged in order of death, not rank. (Bradley)

1982 Death: Leonid Brezhnev. "...after he had loyally worked against the "antiparty group" that attempted to remove Khrushchev, Brezhnev was made a full member of the Politburo, and in 1960 he became chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. In July 1964 he resigned that post to become Khrushchev's assistant as second secretary of the Central Committee, by which time he was considered Khrushchev's heir apparent as party leader. Three months later, however, Brezhnev helped lead the coalition that forced Khrushchev from power, and, in the division of spoils that followed, Brezhnev became first secretary (after 1966, general secretary) of the CPSU (Oct. 15, 1964). Following a brief period of "collective leadership" with Premier Aleksey Kosygin, Brezhnev emerged as the dominant figure. As head of the party Brezhnev left many affairs of state -- e.g., diplomatic relations with noncommunist states and internal economic development -- to his colleagues Kosygin and Nikolay V. Podgorny, chairman of the Presidium. Brezhnev concentrated on foreign and military affairs. When Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubcek tried to liberalize its communist system in 1967-68, Brezhnev developed the concept, known in the West as the Brezhnev Doctrine, which asserted the right of Soviet intervention in cases where "the essential common interests of other socialist countries are threatened by one of their number." This doctrine was used to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Soviets and their Warsaw Pact allies in 1968. During the 1970s Brezhnev attempted to normalize relations between West Germany and the Warsaw Pact and to ease tensions with the United States through the policy known as détente. At the same time, he saw to it that the Soviet Union's military-industrial complex was greatly expanded and modernized. Under his leadership, the Soviets achieved parity with the United States in strategic nuclear weapons, and their space program overtook the American one. A huge navy was fitted out and the army remained the largest in the world. The Soviet Union supported "wars of national liberation" in developing countries through the provision of military aid to left-wing movements and governments. But Brezhnev's unceasing buildup of his defense and aerospace industries left other sectors of the economy increasingly deprived of funds. Soviet agriculture, consumer-goods industries, and health-care services declined throughout the 1970s and early '80s as a consequence, resulting in shortages and declining standards of living. In 1976, Brezhnev was made marshal of the Soviet Union, thus becoming the only other party leader after Stalin to hold the highest military rank. The system of collective leadership ended with his dismissal of Podgorny as chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in May 1977 and Brezhnev's election to that position the following month. He thus became the first person in Soviet history to hold both the leadership of the party and of the state. In 1979 Brezhnev reached agreement with Jimmy Carter on a new bilateral strategic arms limitation treaty (SALT II), but the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty, and soon afterward the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan (December 1979) in an effort to prop up a faltering communist government there. Brezhnev's government also helped plan Jaruzelski's suppression of Poland's Solidarity union in December 1981. His efforts to neutralize internal dissent within the Soviet Union itself were similarly determined. Brezhnev retained his hold on power to the end despite his frail health and growing feebleness. He gave the Soviet Union a formidable military-industrial base capable of supplying large numbers of the most modern weapons, but in so doing he impoverished the rest of the Soviet economy. After his death, he was criticized for a gradual slide in living standards, the spread of corruption and cronyism within the Soviet bureaucracy, and the generally stagnant and dispiriting character of Soviet life in the late 1970s and early 80's..."

1989 Bulgarian leader Todor Zhikov steps down as Communist Party chief and head of state after 35 years in power.

1990 Veteran socialist leader Chandra Shekhar is sworn in as India's new prime minister at the head of its second minority government in less than a year.

1993 John Wayne Bobbitt is acquitted on the charge of marital sexual assault against his wife, Lorena. Presumably, the jury felt that the fellow had already given his pound of flesh.

1995 President Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia and Franjo Tudjman of Croatia initial an agreement shoring up their federation in the first breakthrough of US-led talks aimed at ending four years of war in the former Yugoslavia. (Bradley)

1997 WorldCom Inc. and MCI Communications Corp. agree to a $37 billion merger, the biggest in US history.

2001 The Northern Alliance says that Mazar-e-Sharif "is quiet" and "the Taliban are gone." Taliban military officials say, "We did not want to risk our soldiers or have the city destroyed, so we left.''

2001 US warplanes, including B-52 bombers, strike Taliban positions in areas north of Kabul. A Northern Alliance commander says an attack on Kabul will begin in three days.

2001 US President Bush tells the UN that all countries share an urgent obligation to battle terrorism. "For every regime that sponsors terror, there is a price to be paid and it will be paid ... the time for action has now arrived.'' (Go to President Bush at the UN for the full text and images of his November 10th speech.)

2001 After receiving a scolding from Saudi Arabia, Bush continues to reject a meeting with Yasser Arafat while the two are in New York for Bush's UN address.

2001 Pakistan's largest newspaper publishes an interview with Osama bin Laden. "If America used chemical and nuclear weapons against us, then we may retort with chemical and nuclear weapons. We have the weapons as a deterrent," claims bin Laden. When asked where he allegedly got the nuclear weapons, bin Laden replies, "Go to the next question.'' A video from late October shows Osama bin Laden saying the WTC was a "legitimate target", and the hijackers "were blessed by Allah."









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