History: November 11

November 11

1500 France's King Louis XII and Ferdinand of Aragon sign the secret 'Treaty of Granada' for the conquest and partition of Naples.

1606 A peace treaty is signed at Zeitva-Torok between Turks and Austrians.

1620 The Mayflower Compact is signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower when they land in what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod. The compact calls for "just and equal" laws.

1673 Poland's King John Sobieski defeats the Turks at Korzim, Poland.

1744 Birth: Abigail Smith Adams, US First Lady.

1778 British forces take St. Lucia, West Indies, from the French.

1821 Birth: Fyodor Dostoyevsky, political revolutionary, author.

1831 Death: Nat Turner, a minister and slave, is hanged in Jerusalem, Virginia, for inciting a slave uprising.

1836 Chile declares war on the Peru-Bolivia federation.

1851 A telescope is patented by Alvan Clark of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1885 Birth: George Patton, US Army General.

1889 Washington becomes the 42nd state of the USA.

1911 Volkishness: Guido von List receives a letter from an individual calling himself "Tarnhari," who claims to be the descendant or reincarnation of a chieftain of the ancient Wölsungen tribe in prehistoric Germany. During the early postwar years this same person (Ernst Lauterer) is closely associated with Dietrach Eckart, Hitler's mentor in the early days of the Nazi Party. Tarnhari popularized List's writings during WWI as can be seen from the writings of Ellegaard Ellerbek (Gustav Leisner), a völkisch-mystical writer who paid extravagant tribute to both List and Tarhari. (Roots)

1918 Volkishness: Jorg Lanz von Liebenfels leaves Vienna and immigrates to Hungary. (Roots)

1918 WW1: A German delegation, headed by a civilian, Matthias Erzberger, negotiates armistice terms with General Ferdinand Foch in his railway-coach headquarters on a siding at Compiegne, France. Agreement is finally reached at 5:00 AM. The terms specify that the German army must immediately evacuate all occupied territory and Alsace-Lorraine; immediately surrender great quantities of war materiel; surrender all submarines; and intern all other surface warships as directed by the Allies. In addition the Germans are to evacuate German territory west of the Rhine, and three bridges over the Rhine are to be occupied by the Allies. The armistice becomes effective immediately. Hostilities cease at 11:00 AM, November 11.

1921 Exactly three years after the end of WW1, the Tomb of the Unknowns is dedicated at Arlington Cemetery in Virginia during an Armistice Day ceremony presided over by President Warren G. Harding. Two days before, an unknown American soldier, who had fallen somewhere on a WW1 battlefield, had arrived at America's capital from a military cemetery in France. On Armistice Day, in the presence of President Harding and other government, military, and international dignitaries, the unknown soldier is buried with highest honors beside the Memorial Amphitheater. As the soldier is lowered to his final resting place, a two-inch layer of soil brought from France is placed below his coffin so that he might rest forever atop the earth on which he died.

The Tomb of the Unknowns is considered the most hallowed grave at Arlington Cemetery, America's most sacred military cemetery. The tombstone itself, designed by sculptor Thomas Hudson Jones, is not completed until 1932, when it will be unveiled bearing the description "Here Rests in Honored Glory an American Soldier Known but to God." The WW1 unknown will later be joined by the unidentified remains of soldiers from America's other major 20th century wars and the tomb will be put under permanent guard by special military sentinels. In 1998, a Vietnam War unknown, who will be buried at the tomb for 14 years, is disinterred from the Tomb after DNA testing identifies him. Air Force Lieutenant Michael Blassie will be returned to his hometown of St. Louis, Missouri, and will be buried with military honors, including an F-15 jet 'missing man' fly over and a lone bugler sounding taps.

1922 Birth: Kurt Vonnegut Jr., writer.

1923 Weimar: Hitler is arrested and charged with treason. About midnight he is taken to Landsberg prison, where Count Anton Arco-Vally, the assassin of Kurt Eisner, is awakened and moved to another cell. His comfortable quarters are then given to Hitler. (Payne)

1932 Volkishness: Johann Warthari Wölfl, a longtime follower of Lanz von Liebenfels, founds the Lumenclub in Vienna to reintroduce ONT (Order of the New Templars) ideas to a new right-wing public. (Roots)

1933 A referendum sponsored by Latvian Nazis urging Latvian voters to deprive Jews of their citizenship rights, fails.

1934 Father Charles Coughlin founds the National Union of Social Justice in America.

1935 David Ben-Gurion is named chairman of the Jewish Agency Executive.

1938 Holocaust: Hitler gives Goering a mandate to resolve the Jewish question "one way or another" and to coordinate the necessary steps by various agencies. (Architect)

1938 Holocaust: Reinhard Heydrich reports on Kristallnacht to Goering, stating that 36 Jews have been killed and 20,000 arrested.

1938 Holocaust: A new law decrees that German Jews may neither carry nor possess firearms. (Persecution)

1938 Kate Smith sings God Bless America for the very first time on her Armistice Day radio broadcast. It will later become her signature song. Irving Berlin had penned the tune in 1917 but never released it.

1939 Holocaust: On Polish Independence Day, Germans force 350 Poles to dig ditches and then execute them in groups. Before they die, each group cries out: "Long Live Poland!"

1940 WW2: The British Mediterranean Fleet attacks the Italian naval base at Taranto. British aircraft inflict heavy losses during the night on the Italian fleet.

1941 WW2: The Polish Underground lays flowers and writes anti-German slogans in Warsaw. Involved are 400 juvenile members of Wawer, named after the village where 106 were killed by the Nazis.

1942 Church and Reich: Archbishop Bertram, in the name of the episcopate, sends a letter of protest against the planned compulsory divorce legislation to the Ministers of Justice, Interior and Ecclesiastical Affairs. According to Catholic doctrine, these marriages were indissoluble. (Lewy)

1942 Stalingrad: German attacks on Stalingrad renewed. Chuikov's sixty-second Army is soon in a desperate situation, but manages to cling on. In the meantime it is decided that 'Uranus' should launched on the 19th. (Messenger)

1942 WW2: The Germans occupy Vichy France.

1943 Holocaust: At Theresienstadt, 300 prisoners die during an all-day roll call.

1951 Juan Peron is elected for the second of three presidential terms.

1952 The first videotape recorder is demonstrated at the Bing Crosby Labs in Beverley Hills.

1964 Food shortages in India provoke riots in Kerala State.

1965 Declaration of UDI: Ian Smith declares Rhodesian independence as Britain declares that the regime is illegal.

1971 The US Senate ratifies a treaty to return the island of Okinawa to Japan.

1972 The Nam: The United States turns over its big base at Long Binh to the South Vietnamese, symbolizing the end of direct US participation in the Vietnam War.

1973 Egypt and Israel sign a cease-fire agreement sponsored by the United States, and begin discussions to carry out the pact.

1975 Angola gains independence from the colonial rule of Portugal.

1987 Boris Yeltsin, who had criticized what he calls the slow pace of Soviet reform, is removed as Moscow Communist Party chief.

1989 El Salvador rebels launch a major, three-week offensive against the right-wing government, as at least 400 people die in the fighting.

1990 China tells Saddam Hussein it will not veto a UN Security Council resolution authorising military action to force Iraq out of Kuwait.

1991 Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir vows not to give up occupied territories.

1992 Israeli bombers raid an alleged Lebanese guerrilla base in South Lebanon and officers order civilians in Israeli's north to go to underground shelters.

1995 In Sarajevo, UN soldiers marked the end of WW1, and pledge to end Bosnia's conflict.

2001 Leaders of several countries join UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and President George W. Bush for a memorial service honoring countries who had casualties in the WTC attacks. The two month anniversary of the September 11 attacks falls on a day most of the western world remembers their war veterans (US - Veterans Day, Canada/UK - Remembrance Day). (View Ground Zero on Nov. 11th.)

2001 Despite the US advising the Northern Alliance not to attack Kabul, Alliance forces continue to make advances in Northern Afghanistan, and move towards the capital city.

2001 Taliban militiamen ambush an Alliance convoy killing three journalists.







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