History: November 21

November 21

1368 King Alfonso of Castille decrees that no noble should enter his presence within 30 days of eating garlic.

1430 Joan of Arc is sold to the English by the Burgundians.

1694 Birth: Voltaire, pen name of Jean Francois-Marie Arouet, French author and philosopher. (Bradley)

1783 Jean Francois Pilatre de Rozier (above) and the Marquis Francois Laurant d’Arlandes make the first flight in a balloon, thus becoming the first men to fly. The pair flew nearly six miles around Paris in 25 minutes reaching an altitude of around 300 feet. Benjamin Franklin is one of the spectators at the big event. The flight comes less than six months after the first (unmanned) public balloon demonstration. (Bradley)

1785 Birth: William Beaumont, pioneer American army surgeon.

1787 Birth: Samuel Cunard, British steamship company founder.

1789 The 12th of the 13 original colonies to become the United States of America, does so on this day. North Carolina or the Tar Heel State, with its capitol at Raleigh, boasts the brilliant red cardinal as its state bird, the graceful dogwood as its state flower, and lays claim to being the nation’s largest producer of tobacco and textiles. (Bradley)

1800 The US Congress meets for the first time in Washington, DC.

1861 US Civil War: Lord Palmerston learns an American warship, the James Adger, is at South Hampton and intends to intercept the Southern representatives, John Slidell and James Murray Mason, who are bound for England on the British passenger ship Trent.

1877 Edison demonstrates his latest invention; the ‘talking machine,’ or phonograph. On 19 February 1878, Edison will receive a patent for the device.

1914 WW1: Hindenburg is appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Austrian-German Eastern Front. Ludendorff remains his chief of staff.

1914 WW1: Adolf Hitler is promoted to the equivalent of Lance Corporal. (Maser)

1914 WW1: Admiral Graf von Spee's China Squadron, two heavy and three light cruisers, sink two British heavy cruisers without losing a single ship in the Battle of Coronel, off the coast of Chile. Some time later the British battle cruisers Invincible and Inflexible, under Vice Adm. Sir Frederick Sturdee, will seek out Spee, who had taken his squadron around Cape Horn into the South Atlantic. Spee had planned to raid the British wireless and coaling station at Port Stanley in the Falkland Islands, but discovered Sturdee's squadron there, refueling. The surprised Germans will flee and are pursued and destroyed; approximately 1,800 Germans--including Admiral Spee--will perish on the sunken ships.

1918 WW1: The US First Army advances, smashing through the last German positions northeast and west of Buzancy, thus enabling the French Fourth Army to cross the Aisne.

1918 WW1: Cobbe's British cavalry reaches Mosul in Mesopotamia. Despite provisions of the October 30 armistice, Cobbe is ordered to take the city. After some initial squabbling, the Turkish garrison of Halil Pasha marches out and the British remain.

1918 WW1: The German fleet surrenders to the Allies at Scapa Flow, Orkney.

1919 President Wilson is again in control of his faculties, although he never fully recovers. There is no provision in the law for declaring a president unable "to discharge the powers and duties of the said office."

1924 Volkishness: Karl Maria Wiligut (Weisthor) is involuntarily committed to a Salzburg mental asylum and will not be released until early 1927.

1926 Weimar: The Supreme SA leadership is constituted as Goebbels embarks on his 'conquest of Red Berlin.' (Maser)

1933 Zionism: The Conference for Relief of German Jewry closes in London. It has adopted resolutions calling for Palestine to be the primary location for resettling Jewish refugees and the establishment of a central allocation committee and a central bureau to coordinate the work of the various groups dealing with German-Jewish problems.

1933 The United States officially recognizes the Soviet Union.

1935 Holocaust: The German citizenship of Jews is officially revoked. The Nazi government announces that the Nuremberg Laws apply to all Jews, German or foreign, without exception.

1937 Holocaust: The Swiss Court of Criminal Appeal quashes the judgment of the lower court's verdict on the authenticity of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in its entirety. (See May 14, 1935)

1939 Diary of Leon Gladun: "We departed for Kozielsk."

1941 Those Vichy French: Vichy France opens a punishment and isolation camp at Hadjerat-M'Guil in Algeria. It contains 170 prisoners nine of whom are tortured and murdered in conditions of the worst brutality. Two of the murdered are Jews, one of whom had earlier been released from a concentration camp in Germany in 1939 and fled to France. (Atlas)

1941 Holocaust: Nov 1-15 The Jews of Bukovina, like those of Bessarabia, are uprooted from their homes in more than 100 communities, then marched away and interned. Within a year, more than 120,000 of them had died. (Atlas)

1942 Holocaust: Professor Fischer retires. His successor as Director of the KWI of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics is Professor von Verschuer (above). (Science)

1942 WW2: The US Army Corps of Engineers, working with the Public Roads Administration, completes the Alcan Highway, an overland military supply route to the US territory of Alaska, and a link between airfields in Canada and Alaska. The project is an emergency war measure to provide greater protection for Alaska and northwestern Canada against attack by Japanese forces. Completed in less than ten months, the Alcan Highway, named after an acronym for Alaska and Canada, stretches more than 1,500 miles from Sawson Creek, British Colombia, to Fairbanks, Alaska. In the following year, the road will be improved upon by private contractors, and in 1948, three years after the end of WW2, the entire route is opened to civilian traffic. Today, the Alcan Highway is known as the Alaska Highway. (Bradley)

1949 Nuremberg Tribunal: The widow of General Ludendorff, on trial at Nuremberg, explains why her husband broke with Hiter, stating, "...as early as the summer of 1929 James P. Warburg had undertaken an assignment from financial circles in America, which desired to exercise solitary influence on Germany in the unleashing of a national revolution. Warburg's task," she says, "was to find the suitable man in Germany, and he entered into contract with Adolph Hitler who subsequently received sums of money amounting to 27 million dollars up to January 30, 1932, and still another seven million thereafter, enabling him to finance his movement." (Williams Intelligence Summary, Feb. 1950)

1953 The discovery of The Piltdown Man in 1912 is revealed as a hoax.

1970 Elvis Presley meets US President Richard Nixon at the White House and receives a Drug Enforcement Agency badge.

1974 The US Congress passes the Freedom of Information Act over President Ford's veto.

1985 Jonathan Jay Pollard, a civilian Jewish-American US Navy intelligence analyst, is arrested on charges of illegally passing classified US security information about Arab nations to Israel.

1985 President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev end a summit meeting in Switzerland with a promise to accelerate arms-reduction talks.

1991 President George HW Bush signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, making it easier for workers to sue in job discrimination cases.

1992 Germany sells Romani asylum seekers back to Romania for $21 million, and begins shipping them in handcuffs on November 1. Some Roma commit suicide rather than go. The German press agency asks western journalists not to use the word "deportation" in their coverage of this, because that word has "uncomfortable historical associations."

1995 China jails well-known dissident Wei Jing-sheng and charges him with trying to overthrow the government.

2001 A 94-year-old Connecticut woman becomes the nation's fifth anthrax victim, a death that mystifies authorities since she rarely left home. Later it is discovered a family living a mile away had received a letter with anthrax residue on it.

2001 The US Justice Department determines that all 19 hijackers in the Sept. 11 attacks entered the US legally, on temporary visas issued at US consulates in the Middle East and Europe.

2001 Speaking to 10,000 cheering US paratroopers of the 101st Airborne in Fort Campbell Ky., US President Bush declares, "Afghanistan is just the beginning on the war against terror ...Across the world and across the years, we will fight these evil ones, and we will win."

2001 The Taliban agree to give up the city of Konduz. But the Taliban vow to fight to the death to hold on to their spiritual birthplace of Kandahar.

2001 Syed Tayyab Agha, the 28 year-old protege of Supreme leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, declares "We will not give any chance to anybody to disturb our Islamic rule in Kandahar." Speaking to dozens of international journalists Agha continues, "You should forget the Sept. 11 attacks because now there is new fighting against Islam. We hope mighty Allah will break America." On the whereabouts of Osama bin Laden, Agha states, "We have no idea where he is, there is no relation now, there is no communication."











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