History: November 28

November 28

1262 Death: Shinran, founder of Japan's True Pure Land Buddhist sect.

1582 Poet and playwright William Shakespeare weds Anne Hathaway.

1628 Birth: John Bunyan, English cleric, author, poet (Pilgrim's Progress).

1729 Natchez Indians massacre most of the 300 French settlers and soldiers at Fort Rosalie, Louisiana.

1757 Birth: William Blake, English poet and artist.

1780 Maria Theresa dies in Vienna. Joseph II succeeds her.

1795 Barbary: The US pays $800,000 and a frigate as a tribute to Algiers and Tunis. "...The American colonies traded extensively in the Mediterranean before the Revolutionary War. During this time, British tribute treaties with the Barbary States protected American ships. But after the colonies broke away from England, this protection vanished. Many British believed that the Barbary pirates would eliminate American commercial competition in the Mediterranean. One British official gloated, "The Americans cannot protect themselves. They cannot pretend to [have] a navy." After finding American commerce in the Mediterranean had almost stopped due to the pirates, the Continental Congress agreed in 1784 to negotiate treaties with the four Barbary States.

Congress appointed a special commission, consisting of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, to oversee the negotiations. The following year, Congress authorized a maximum of $80,000 to spend on tribute treaties with all the Barbary States. In 1787, the United States signed a tribute treaty with Morocco. This proved to be a reasonable treaty, costing the United States a one-time only tribute of about $20,000. Except for a few brief disagreements, Morocco never again harassed American shipping. Algiers, the most powerful of the Barbary States, was a different story. In the summer of 1785, pirates from Algiers captured two American merchant ships and held the 21 men aboard them for ransom. The United States offered $4,200 for the captives. The ruler of Algiers, called the dey, demanded nearly $60,000. The Americans refused, and negotiations dragged on for more than 10 years. The two commissioners most involved in tribute treaty negotiations were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Adams favored paying tribute as the cheapest way to get American commerce moving again in the Mediterranean. Jefferson disagreed. He saw no end to the demands for tribute. He wanted matters settled "through the medium of war" and proposed a league of trading nations to force the end of Barbary piracy. In 1790, pirates from Algiers captured 11 American ships and more than 100 prisoners to add to those already held for ransom. This shocking news produced a serious debate in the newly formed U.S. Congress over the need to build a navy. But it took five years before Congress authorized the construction of six warships. Finally, in 1796, the United States signed a peace treaty with Algiers. The United States agreed to pay $642,500 plus annual tribute of naval supplies and presents to the dey. In exchange, the dey promised to release of the American captives and protect American shipping. The United States had to borrow money to make the primary tribute payment..."

1805 Birth: John Stephens, US archaeologist; will found the study of Central America.

1810 Birth: William Froude, in England, engineer, naval architect.

1820 Birth: Friedrich Engels, in Germany, social philosopher; Karl Marx's collaborator.

1821 Panama declares itself independent from Spain and joins the Republic of Colombia.

1853 Olympia is established as the capital of Washington Territory.

1861 US Civil War: The Confederate Congress admits Missouri to the Confederacy, although Missouri has not yet seceded from the Union.

1863 Thanksgiving is first observed as a regular American holiday. Proclaimed by President Lincoln the previous month, it is declared that the event will be observed annually, on the fourth Thursday in November.

1866 Birth: Henry Bacon, architect (Lincoln Memorial).

1871 The Ku Klux Klan trials begin in the Federal District Court in South Carolina.

1872 The Modoc War of 1872-73 begins in northern California when fighting breaks out between Modoc Chief Captain Jack and a cavalry detail led by Captain James Jackson.

1895 The first automobile race in America begins, as six cars travel from Jackson Park in Chicago to Waukegan, Illinois. J. Frank Dureyea is the winner, traveling at an average speed of 7 and 1/2 miles per hour. It takes him 7 hours 53 minutes to make the trip, which bagged him $2,000 for the effort. (Bradley)

1887 Birth: Ernst Roehm, one of Hitler's earliest supporters. As an army captain in the early Twenties, Roehm will funnel money and arms from the army to the Nazis and in 1923 participate in the Munich putsch, after which he will be abruptly dismissed from the army. Military advisor in Bolivia, 1928-1930. Recalled by Hitler in 1931 and made head of the SA. In June 1934, he will be arrested on Hitler's orders during what has become known as "The Night of the Long Knives." Will be executed on Hitler's orders in Munich's Stadellheim prison after being accused of planning a coup d'etat against the Hitler government.

1899 Second Boer War: the British, under Lord Methuen, defeat a force of 9,000 Boers in the Battle of Modder River.

1905 The Irish political party Sinn Fein is founded by Arthur Griffith in Dublin.

1907 Birth: Charles Alston, artist.

1908 Birth: Claude Levi-Strauss, Belgian social anthropologist. (Structure Anthro).

1912 After more than 400 years of Turkish rule, Albania declares its independence.

1915 WW1: Late in the month, the remnants of the Serbian army, accompanied by a horde of civilian refugees, reaches the Adriatic, pursued by the Austrians.

1924 Death: Friedrich Ebert, first President of the German Weimar Republic.

1933 A pogrom at Jassy in Romania is carried out by the Iron Guard.

1933 The University of Budapest is closed by the government until anti-Jewish disturbances cease.

1935 Advocates for Jewish refugees reject a proposed liquidation bank for German Jewry. (Edelheit)

1935 The German Reich declares all men aged 18 to 45 as army reservists.

1937 Spanish dictator Francisco Franco blockades the Spanish coast.

1937 The Bar Association in Lublin, Poland, restricts the number of Jews in the legal profession to a percentage corresponding to the ratio of Jews in the total population.

1938 Holocaust: Nazi officials introduce residential restrictions on Jews. Movement of Jews from locality to locality is prohibited. The presidents of German regional councils are empowered to impose curfews on their Jewish populations and designate certain places as off-limits (Judenbann). (Persecution)

1939 WW2: The USSR denounced its nonaggression pact with Finland, which had resisted Soviet pressures.

1941 The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise gets underway from its home port of Pearl Harbor to deliver F4F Wildcat fighters to Wake Island.

1941 Holocaust: Hitler meets with the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, telling him that Germany has declared an uncompromising war on the Jews. Britain and Russia are both power bases of Jewry, Hitler claims, and he will carry on the fight until the last traces of Jewish hegemony are eliminated. The German army will in the future break through the Caucasus into the Middle East and help to liberate the Arab world. Germany's only other objective in the region will be the annihilation of the Jews. (Fleming; Architect)

1942 Diary of Leon Gladun: (Iran) I came down with malaria and went to Hospital No. 3 where I was also very seriously ill with meningitis and was in the hospital for 2 1\2 months. I tried for a vacation in Palestine but nothing came of it. Note: Doctors were amazed that Leon survived malaria and meningitis simultaneously. A blood clot formed at this time will cause Leon a fatal heart attack in 1973.

1942 WW2: Coffee rationing begins in the US, lasting until the end of the war.

1943 WW2: Nov 28-Dec 2 The Tehran Conference: Churchill and Roosevelt meet with Stalin for the first time. During the deliberations, a date for the invasion of France, code-named Operation Overlord, is confirmed. Stalin agrees to launch a simultaneous attack on Germany's eastern front and is assured that a second invasion of France (from the Mediterranean), known as Operation Anvil, will also take place. Stalin reaffirms that the Soviets will join in the fight against Japan after Germany is defeated, but asserts that the USSR wants Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and a year-round Pacific port on the mainland of Asia. The restoration of Iran is also discussed. Note: Roosevelt also agrees to most of Stalin's territorial demands in Europe and asks that the arrangements be kept secret until after the next presidential elections in the United States. In Ankara, Anthony Eden tells the Turkish foreign minister that the Soviets will be given a free hand in the Balkans after the war. (Sturdza)

1944 Holocaust: The last gassings take place at Auschwitz. More than 8,000 have been gassed since the first of November. (Atlas

1944 WW2: The first shipment of supplies reaches Antwerp by convoy, a new route for the Allies.

1948 Edwin Land's first Polaroid cameras go on sale in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

1960 Mauritania gains independence from France (Now a National Day).

1963 US President Lyndon Johnson changes the name of Cape Canaveral, Florida, to Cape Kennedy, in honor of his assassinated predecessor. Residents will changed the name back to Cape Canaveral in 1973.

1964 Mariner 4 is launched. It will become the first spacecraft to fly by Mars.

1966 A coup in Burundi overthrows the monarchy as a republic is declared.

1971 Death: Wasfi Tal, Jordan's Prime Minister, assassinated by Black September terrorists outside the Hilton Hotel in Cairo where he is on an official visit.

1978 Iranian Revolution: Amid growing fundamentalist opposition, the Iranian government bans all religious rallies.

1984 Republican Robert Dole is elected Senate majority leader.

1986 The Reagan administration exceeds the SALT II arms limitations for the first time.

1987 Death: Choh Hao Li, biochemist professor (isolated growth hormones), at 74.

1988 Picasso's Acrobat & Harlequin sells for $38.46 million.

1994 Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, serving 15 consecutive life sentences for the brutal murders of 15 men, is beaten to death by a fellow inmate while performing cleaning duty in a toilet at the Columbia Correctional Institute gymnasium in Portage, Wisconsin.

1995 Prime Ministers John Major of Britain and John Bruton of Ireland unveil a new initiative for all-party talks on the future of the British-ruled province of Northern Ireland.

1996 General Ratko Mladic formally gives up leadership of the Bosnian Serb army.

2001 US warplanes bomb a suspected hideout of Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders as the US declares it has detained members of Osama bin Laden's terrorist network.

2001 The CIA identifies Michael Spann as the operative killed in the Mazar-e-Sharif prison uprising. Spann officially becomes the first American combat death in the Afghan war.

2001 The Pentagon says that the Taliban leadership has lost control of their troops.

2001 US forces concentrate their attacks on a deep mountain bunker where they suspect Osama bin Laden may be holed up. The bunker is near a complex in Tora Bora. A Pentagon spokesmen says, "We're now convinced this is where he is and where 1,000 or so al-Qaeda fighters with him will make their last stand."

2001 More than 150 captured Taliban soldiers are reportedly executed by Pashtun opposition forces in Takteh Pol.

2001 In a radio address to Taliban forces, Taliban spiritual leader Mullah Mohammad Omar, calls on his fighters to "Stick to your positions, and fight to the death."

2001 The Northern Alliance tells the UN-sponsored conference in Bonn that there is no need for an international military force in Afghanistan. The leader of the Alliance delegation, Younus Qanooni, declares, "We have our own qualified security forces and there is full security in Afghanistan."











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