History: November 30

November 30

0538 Birth: St. Gregory of Tours, chronicler, bishop.

1016 Death: Edmund II, Ironsides, King of the Saxons (1016), at 27.

1466 Birth: Andrea Doria, Genoese statesman, admiral.

1554 Roman Catholicism is briefly restored to England, under the reign of Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. In the process, 'Bloody Mary' will have Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, Nicholas Ridley and nearly 300 other Protestant leaders burned at the stake.

1554 Birth: Philip Sidney, in England, poet, statesman, soldier (Arcadia).

1667 Birth: Jonathan Swift, English satirist, author, writer of Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, is born in Dublin.

1694 Death: Marcello Malpighi, father of microscopic anatomy.

1729 Birth: Samuel Seabury, first bishop of the American Protestant Episcopal Church. Following the American Revolution, Seabury will help formulate the constitution to make the American Protestant Episcopal Church independent and autonomous from the Church of England.

1793 Birth: Johann Lukas Schonlein; will help establish scientific medicine.

1803 Spain cedes her claims to the Louisiana Territory to France.

1804 The impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase begins. "...He was an ardent patriot, vehemently resisting the Stamp Act. He was prominent in the "Sons of Liberty", a group of patriots in Annapolis that forcibly opened the public offices, destroyed the stamps and burned the collector in effigy. The Maryland convention sent him as one of five delegates to the first continental congress of 1774 and he continued a member of successive congresses until the end of 1778.Chase continuously debated aggressively for independence, although his Maryland delegation had been restricted from voting for independence from Britain. Mr. Chase could not stand the thought of being obliged to withhold support from a measure he so enthusiastically favored, gladly accepted from congress a mission to Canada in the company of Charles Carroll and Benjamin Franklin. The object of the mission was to persuade Canada to join the colonies, but the journey was fruitless. Chase was the most aggressive anti-British leader in Maryland and upon his return from Canada he and his colleague, Charles Carroll, took to the open road on horseback to make impassioned speeches for independence at farms and towns throughout the colony. Their campaign was successful and the Maryland delegation reversed its position and urged an all out vote in favor of independence. Chase returned to Philadelphia just in time to join in adopting the decisive resolution. He was appointed on most of the important committees where his industry was unwearied...In the 1790's, Chase became a pronounced Federalist, and in 1796 President Washington appointed him as associate justice of the Supreme Court. His colleagues did not view him very favorably at the time, and his career on the bench turned out to be one of the stormiest on record. He revealed his intellectual power in some of the most important decisions, but his bullying tactics in the sedition trials, and his use of the bench for partisan harangues against the Republicans, led to his impeachment during the Presidency of Jefferson. He deserved rebuke for his highhanded partisanship, but he had not been guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors within the constitutional framework, and he was..."

1810 Birth: Oliver Fisher Winchester, rifle maker (Winchester).

1817 Birth: Theodor Mommsen, in Germany, historian, writer (Nobel 1902).

1835 Birth: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, in Hannibal, Missouri.

1838 Mexico declares war on France.

1861 US Civil War: The British Parliament sends to Queen Victoria an ultimatum for the United States, demanding the release of two Confederate diplomats who were seized on the British ship Trent.

1863 Birth: Andres Bonifacio, leader of 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain.

1864 US Civil War: The Union wins the Battle of Franklin, Tennessee.

1866 Work begins on the first US underwater highway tunnel, in Chicago.

1874 Birth: Winston Churchill, born in Blenheim Palace, the 21,000-acre estate of his family; British prime minister during and after WW2, Conservative, 1940-45, 1951-55, Nobel 1953. A descendant of the Duke of Marlborough.

1900 Boer War: The French government denounces British actions in South Africa, declaring sympathy for the Boers.

1900 Death: Oscar Wilde, Irish born playwright, at 46; in a Paris hotel room after saying of the room's wallpaper: "One of us had to go."

1906 President Theodore Roosevelt publicly denounces the segregation of Japanese schoolchildren in San Francisco.

1915 Birth: Henry Taube, chemist (Nobel 1983).

1915 WW1: Sabotage is suspected in an explosion at the DuPont munitions plant in Wilmington, Delaware.

1917 WW1: In France, Germans forces counterattack in the Cambrai salient.

1917 WW1: The US Rainbow Division, commanded by Colonel Douglas McArthur and representing men from every state of the Union, lands in France.

1919 Women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections.

1927 A Soviet delegation arrives in Geneva to take part in the deliberations of the preparatory commission on disarmament.

1933 Goering removes the Gestapo from the control of the Interior Ministry.

1935 Non-belief in Nazism is proclaimed grounds for divorce in Germany.

1936 The Crystal Palace, built in 1851, is destroyed by fire. Flames go as high as 300ft into the air.

1936 Birth: Abbie Hoffman, 'leader' of the Yippie Movement, activist, entertaining author.

1936 Zionism: Moshe Shertok, head of the Political Department of the Jewish Agency, testifies before the Peel Commission, blaming the Colonial Office and its restrictive immigration policy as the reason for "illegal" Jewish immigration to Palestine. (Edelheit)

1938 Father Charles Coughlin makes an anti-Semitic broadcast to an estimated 3.5 million American listeners on a nationwide radio network. Coughlin, with one of the largest anti-Semitic libraries in America, had been using anti-Semitic overtones in his propaganda before 1936, but it was only after the defeat of his third party in that year that he began to use anti-Semitism as a political weapon. (McWilliams)

1939 WW2: The Soviets invade Finland and the Russo-Finnish war begins. The Finns put up a surprisingly spirited resistance in what is called the Russo-Finnish War, or Winter War. The Western Powers again fail to act against Russia, and later Churchill will declare war on Finland.

1940 WW2: Romanian Foreign Minister Sturdza leaves Berlin.

1942 Holocaust: The New York Times runs one of the first articles on the unfolding story of the Holocaust. That article, under the headline: "1,000,000 Jews Slain by the Nazis, Report Says" is only six paragraphs long and buried on page 7. An exhibition of the clipping in June 1996 at the New York Public Library will include a caption noting that The Times was criticized for having "grossly underplayed" coverage of the Holocaust, and deemed such criticism as valid. (NY Times, June 26, 1996)

1942 WW2: Romanian leader Marshal Antonescu makes his first secret contacts with the Western Powers.

1942 Stalingrad: The Soviets attack to clear the Germans from the lower Chir. A weeks heavy fighting follows, during which von Manstein is forced to deploy formations earmarked for 'Winter Storm,' which results in a postponement of that operation. The Soviets, however, fail to break through. (Messenger)

1947 The day after a UN decree for Israel's right to exist, Jewish settlements are attacked.

1948 The Soviet Union completes the division of Berlin, installing a hand-picked government in the Soviet sector.

1949 Chinese Communists capture Chungking.

1950 Korea: President Truman declares that the United States will use the A-bomb to get peace in Korea.

1954 The first modern instance of a meteorite striking a human being occurs at Sylacauga, Alabama, when a meteorite crashes through the roof of a house and into a living room. It bounces off a radio, and strikes a woman on the hip. The victim, Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges, is sleeping on a couch at the time of impact. The space rock is a sulfide meteorite weighing 8.5 pounds and measuring seven inches in length. Mrs. Hodges is not permanently injured but suffers a nasty bruise on her hip and leg. Ancient Chinese records tell of people being injured or killed by falling meteorites, but the Sylacauga meteorite is the first modern record of this type of human injury. In 1911, a dog in Egypt was killed by the Nakhla meteorite.

1956 The United States offers emergency oil to Europe to counter the Arab ban.

1961 The Soviet Union vetoes a UN seat for Kuwait, pleasing Iraq.

1962 U Thant of Burma is unanimously elected the third Secretary-General of the UN.

1964 The USSR launches Zond 2 towards Mars, but no data is ever returned.

1966 Barbados gains independence from Britain, now a National Day.

1967 Julie Nixon and David Eisenhower announce their engagement.

1967 The Kuria Muria Islands are ceded by Britain to Oman.

1967 The People's Rep of South Yemen (Aden) gains independence from Britain.

1974 Pioneer II sends photos back to NASA as it nears Jupiter.

1982 The US submarine Thomas Edison collides with a US Navy destroyer in the South China Sea.

1988 The Soviets stop jamming Radio Liberty; the first time in 38 years.

1988 The UN General Assembly (151-2) censures the US for refusing the PLO's Arafat a visa.

1990 Desert Shield: President George HW Bush proposes a US-Iraq meeting to avoid war.

2001 Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon visits Ground Zero with New York Mayor Giuliani. Sharon declares, "I can assure you that democracies will defeat the terror."

2001 An anti-Taliban force of Pashtun fighters captures a strategic peak near Kandahar's airport without a fight. A Pashtun aid declares, "Soon you will hear we are advancing on Kandahar. When we are ready, we will make our way north slowly, and in a week or 10 days, we will have the city." Capture of the high ground near Kandahar will ease access to the city for a contingent of US Marines who set up a base 80 kilometers southwest of Kandahar.

2001 United Nations negotiators in Bonn say they are making progress in shaping an initial cabinet of about 20 members and a legislature of 200. The newly formed government will hold power until spring when it will summon a "loyal jirga" (national assembly) to form a more lasting interim government that will hold elections in about two years.

2001 At the US Marines forward base in southern Afghanistan, American troops raise a bamboo pole with an American flag and a flag of New York City. The NYC flag was given to the Marines by New York City firefighters to honor the victims of the World Trade Center attack.











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