History: October 3

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October 3

2333BC Tangun establishes the kingdom of Chosun (now Korea).

1226 Death: St Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order.

1430 All Jews are expelled from Eger Bohemia.

1605 Birth: Li Tzu-ch'eng, Chinese revolutionary, will dethron the last Ming emperor.

1656 Death: Myles Standish, Plymouth Colony leader.

1678 The Taj Mahal is completed.

1691 The Treaty of Limerick is signed, ending the Irish Rebellion against English rule.

1692 In Massachusetts, Increase Mather publishes his "Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits," which effectively brings an end to the Salem Witch Trials which had begun earlier this year.

1739 Russia signs a treaty with the Turks, ending a three-year conflict between the two countries.

1776 US Revolutionary War: The US Congress borrows five million dollars to halt the rapid depreciation of paper money in the colonies.

1789 President Washington proclaims the first US national Thanksgiving Day on 26 November.

1790 Birth: Cherokee Chief John Ross, who will lead opposition to the forced move of his people to what is now Oklahoma.

1800 Birth: George Bancroft, American historian, will be known as the 'Father of American History' for his 10-volume A History of the United States.

1803 Birth: John Gorrie, inventor, (cold-air process of refrigeration).

1804 Birth: Townsend Harris, first Western consul to reside in Japan.

1844 Birth: Sir Patrick Manson, Scottish doctor, born in Aberdeenshire; will be known as 'Mosquito Manson' from his pioneer work with Sir Ronald Ross in malaria research. He will practise medicine in the East in China (1871) and Hong Kong, 1883, where he will start a school of medicine that will become the University of Hong Kong. He will become medical adviser to the Colonial Office, and in 1899 help to found the London School of Tropical Medicine. He will be the first to argue that the mosquito is host to the malaria parasite (1877).  (Bradley)

1854 Birth: William Crawford Gorgas, US Surgeon-General; will help cure yellow fever.

1862 US Civil War: At the Battle of Corinth, in Mississippi, a Union army defeats the Confederates.

1863 US President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation designating the last Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.

1866 Seven Weeks War: Italy and Austria sign the Treaty of Vienna.

1873 Captain Jack and three other Modoc Indians are hanged in Oregon for the murder of General Edward Canby.

1875 Hebrew Union College is founded in Cincinnati, Ohio under Jewish auspices; the first Jewish college in America to train men for the rabbinate.

1876 John L. Routt, the Colorado Territory governor, is elected the first state governor of Colorado in the Centennial year of the US.

1888 Birth: Carl von Ossietzky, in Germany, journalist, pacifist (Nobel 1935).

1893 The motor-driven vacuum cleaner is patented by J.S. Thurman of St. Louis, Missouri.

1899 The border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela is finally settled with Venezuela gaining the area around the mouth of the Orinoco river.

1900 Birth: Jay Irving, in New York City, cartoonist, (Draw Me a Laugh).

1901 The Victor Talking Machine Company is incorporated. After a merger with Radio Corporation of America, RCA-Victor will become the leader in phonographs and many of the records played on them. The famous Victrola phonograph logo, with Nipper the dog, and the words "His Master's Voice" will appear on all RCA-Victor phonographs and record labels. (Bradley)

1903 Birth: Ernst Kaltenbrunner; fanatical Austrian Nazi and leading police official who will succeed Reinhard Heydrich as Chief of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) in 1943. Will hang at Nuremberg on October 15, 1946.

1904 Birth: Charles Pedersen, UK biochemist (Nobel 1987).

1904 Mary McLeod Bethune opens Daytona Normal and Industrial School.

1906 SOS is established as an international distress signal at the Berlin Radio Conference (the first conference on wireless telegraphy). Coming into effect in July 1908 it will replace CQD which is supposed to mean "all stations - urgent."

1909 Birth: Herblock [Herbert Block], political cartoonist.

1913 US Federal Income Tax is signed into law at a rate of 1%.

1918 Boris becomes king of Bulgaria.

1918 Weimar: Germany forms a parliamentary government with Prince Max von Baden as its head.

1918 Austria sues for peace. Food shortages in Vienna have become so severe that thousands are starving to death.

1922 Rebecca L. Felton becomes the first female senator in the US when she is appointed to the US Senate by Governor Thomas Hardwick of Georgia. The appointment takes place when Congress had already adjourned, so Felton has no opportunity to serve. When the new session starts, Senator-elect Walter George, who is to replace her, will galantly agree to claim his seat a day late, to allow the eighty-seven years old Felton to actualy serve one day. (Bradley)

1924 Birth: Harvey Kurtzman, cartoonist.

1925 Birth: Eugene Luther Jr.

1928 The French submarine Ondine sinks while returning to Toulon, drowning 42.

1929 Weimar: Gustav Stresemann dies in Germany.

1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes officially changes its name to Yugoslavia.

1931 The comic strip Dick Tracy debutes in the New York News.

1932 With the admission of Iraq into the League of Nations, Britain terminates its mandate over the Arab nation, making Iraq independent after 100 years of direct foreign rule (17 years of British), and centuries of nominal rule by various imperial powers. Britain seized Iraq from Ottoman Turkey during WW1 and was granted a mandate by the League of Nations to govern the nation in 1920. A Hashemite monarchy was organized under British protection in 1921, and on 3 October 1932, the kingdom of Iraq is granted independence. The Iraqi government maintains close economic and military ties with Britain, leading to several anti-British revolts. A pro-Axis revolt in 1941 will lead to a British military intervention, and the Iraqi government will agreed under duress to support the Allied war effort. In 1958, the monarchy will be overthrown, and for the next two decades Iraq is ruled by a series of military and civilian governments. In 1979, General Saddam Hussein becomes the Iraqi dictator. In 2003 the US will invade Iraq and eventualy capture Hussain. (Bradley)

1933 An assassination attempt is made against Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss.

1933 A British court indicts ten Brit ha-Biryonim (Covenant of Terrorists) members in the Arlosoroff murder. (Edelheit)

1934 Holocaust: Goebbels warns the Juedische Rundschau (Jewish Review) to limit its articles to Zionist affairs, ot it will be shut down.

1935 Oct 3-4 Mussolini's Italian troops invade the African nation of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), sending in forces from Italian Eritrea and Somaliland. Italy had unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Ethiopia in 1896, and that defeat still rankled many Italians

1939 Diary of Leon Gladun: We arrived in Moscow. Everyone was anticipating getting something hot. Meanwhile they gave us a piece of bread and a bit of butter and nothing else for the rest of the day. And in addition cold and snow greeted us. The whole day we sit in Moscow and the night as well--then they move us back and forth around Moscow. We're waiting for food and getting mad as hell from hunger. But in Moscow they never did give us anything hot--only canned food and bread. After a cold dinner we left Moscow and are now headed southwest. Apparently to Rostov, if that's really possible.

1940 The US Army adopts airborne, or parachute, soldiers. Airborne troops are later used in WW2 for landing troops in combat and infiltrating agents into enemy territory.

1941 WW2: In Berlin, Hitler tells the German people that Russia, 'the enemy in the East,' is broken and will never rise again. "German men and women, if I speak today again after many long months to you it is not to reply to one of those statesmen who recently wondered why I had been silent for such a long time. Posterity will one day be able to weigh up which was more important in the past three and a half months, the speeches of Churchill or my actions..."-Hitler

1941 Holocaust: Himmler tours Kiev. It is not known whether Himmler included Babi Yar on his tour. (Architect)

1941 The aerosol is first patented in the US by L. D. Goodhue and W. N. Sullivan.

1942 German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun's brainchild, the V2 missile, in its first succesful test, travels 118 miles after being launched from Peenemunde, an island off Germany's Baltic coast. German scientists, led by von Braun, had been working on the development of these long-range missiles since the 1930s. Three trial launches had already failed; the fourth in the series, known as A-4, finally saw the V2, a 12-ton rocket capable of carrying a one-ton warhead, successfully launched. The V2 was unique in several ways. First, it was virtually impossible to intercept. Upon launching, the missile rises six miles vertically; it then proceeds on an arced course, cutting off its own fuel according to the range desired. The missile then tips over and falls on its target at a speed of almost 4,000 mph. It hits with such force that the missile burrows itself into the ground several feet before exploding. It had the potential of flying a distance of 200 miles, and the launch pads were portable, making them impossible to detect before firing.

The first launches as part of an offensive did not occur until 6 September 1944 when two missiles were fired at Paris. On 8 September, two more were fired at England, which would be followed by more than 1,100 more during the next six months. More than 2,700 Britains died because of the rocket attacks. After the war, both the United States and the Soviet Union captured samples of the rockets for reproduction. They also captured the scientists responsible for their creation and put them to work for for thier missle and space programs. (Bradley)

1942 FDR establishes the Office of Economic Stabilization and authorises controls on farm prices, rents, wages and salaries.

1944 WW2: German troops evacuate Athens, Greece.

1945 The World Federation of Trade Unions is formed.

1947 The first telescope lens of 200" (508 cm) in diameter is completed.

1952 The first British atomic bomb is detonated on the Monte Bello Islands, Australia, becoming the third country in the world to employ the destructive weapon. The device tested is a plutonium implosion bomb similar to Fat Man, one of the bombs dropped over Japan by the US.

1955 The Soviet battleship Novorossiisk accidently strikes a WW2 mine in the Baltic Sea.

1962 Astronaut Wally Schirra blasts off from Cape Canaveral aboard the "Sigma Seven" on a nine-hour flight.

1964 Herblock cartoon.

1967 William Knight sets an X-15 speed record of 7,297kph/4,534mph/Mach 6.72.

1968 Peruvian President Fernando Belaunde Terry is overthrown in a coup by a National Revolutionary Junta headed by Velasco Alvarado.

1972 Spaceflight 71-2 is launched.

1972 President Nixon and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko sign strategic arms limitation agreements, putting the first upward limits on the two countries' nuclear weapons stockpiles.

1977 Former Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi is arrested on corruption charges.

1979 Death: Charles White, artist, at 61 in Los Angeles.

1985 The 21st Shuttle Mission (51J- an all-military flight) , Atlantis 1 is launched.

1986 A Soviet Yankee-class submarine sinks off North Carolina, killing 3.

1988 The 26th Space Shuttle Mission, Discovery 7, returns to Earth after a four day mission.

1988 Lebanese kidnappers release Mithileshwar Singh after 30 months capivity.

1988 Chad and Libya restors diplomatic relations after years of conflict.

1988 Death: Franz Josef Strauss, German Federal Republic minister of defense (1956-62), at 73.

1989 Troops loyal to Panamanian strongman General Manuel Antonio Noriega crush a coup attempt by junior officers. Noriega is held briefly by coup plotters but escapes unharmed.

1990 After 40 years, East and West Germany are reunited as one nation at midnight, burying 45 years of Cold War division. It is just four days away from the 41st anniversary of the forming of the East German state. The reunification, originally scheduled to take place during the December parliamentary elections, occurs earlier because East Germany's economy is in serious shape. (Bradley)

1992 Bill Gates III, the college-dropout founder of Microsoft Corporation, heads Forbes magazine list of the 400 richest Americans with a net worth of $6.3 billion.

1993 Fighting erupts in the streets of Moscow between pro and anti-Yeltsin forces. 62 people die in the violence that ends two days later when the rebel vice president and speaker of parliament surrenders.

1994 Agriculture Secretary Mike Espy announces his resignation, effective at the end of the year. He is under investigation for accepting gifts from companies regulated by the USDA. Espy denies violating any laws or ethics rules but admits he'd been careless.

1997 In response to Republican calls to appoint an independent counsel to investigate the fund-raising practices of President Clinton and Vice President Gore, Attorney General Janet Reno says there is "no evidence whatsoever" that the president solicited campaign contributions in exchange for favourable treatment.

2000 Vice President Al Gore, the Democratic presidential candidate, and his Republican challenger, Texas Governor George W. Bush, face off in the first of a series of three presidential debates.

2001 Amid rising concerns about the use of lethal substances by terrorists, Tommy Thompson, the secretary of health and human services, tells a Senate committee that the government is planning to stockpile 40 million doses of smallpox vaccine.

2001 UK Prime Minister Tony Blair is begins more shuttle diplomacy to bolster the coalition against terrorism.






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