History: October 30

October 30

1340 In the Spanish-Muslim Wars, an army under Alfonso IV of Portugal heavily defeats the Moors under Abu Hamed at the battle of Salado.

1489 The Peace of Tours is signed, between emperor Maximilian I & Flemings.

1626 Death: Willebord van Roijen, Dutch mathematician, at 35.

1629 King Charles I gives the Bahamas to Sir Robert Heath.

1650 Quakers, the name for the religious Society of Friends, is coined during a court case at which founder George Fox tells the magistrate to 'quake at the word of the Lord.'

1697 The Treaty of Ryswick ends the war between France and the Grand Alliance.

1735 Birth: John Adams, second president of the USA, in Quincy, Massachusetts. "...Growing up, John took advantage of the freedom given by his parents. In his autobiography, John wrote that he cared little for school and enjoyed all types of outdoor activities. John's favorite activity was hunting. After a while, John began to bring a gun along with him to school. This way he could begin hunting even before he got home from school! Soon, his parents began to worry that John was wasting his gifted intellect. His father asked him at age ten, "What would you do, child?" John answered back, "Be a farmer." The next day John's father took the boy to fields and worked him as hard as any adult. The night after young John came back tired, sore, and covered in dirt, his father asked John, "Well, John, are you satisfied with being a farmer?" His father, hoping he had taught his son a valuable lesson, was surprised by the answer. "I like it very well, Sir." This was one of the first cases of John's stubbornness, which he possessed throughout life..."

1741 Birth: Angelica Kauffmann, Swiss painter.

1757 Death: Osman III, sultan of Turkey (1754-57).

1768 The Wesley Chapel on John Street in New York City is dedicated. It is the first Methodist church building to be erected in the American colonies.

1772 Captain Cook arrives with his ship Resolution in Capetown.

1816 Death: Frederik I WK, 1st king of Werttemberg (1806-16). Note: A search for 'Werttemberg' yields only four pictures of an unremarkable breed of dog.

1817 The independent government of Venezuela is established by Simon Bolivar.

1817 Birth: Hermann Kopp, German chemist (Jahresbericht of Chemistry).

1830 Birth: John Stevens Bowen, Major-General (Confederate Army).

1838 Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Lorain County, Ohio becomes the first college in the US to admit female students.

1839 Birth: Alfred Sisley, French impressionist, landscape painter.

1840 Birth: William G. Sumner, US sociologist, political analyst.

1843 Birth: A. G. Henri Regnault, French water colors painter.

1848 Birth: Sinovi P. Rostsjestvenski, Russian admiral.

1864 The Peace of Vienna, under which Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg to Prussia, is signed.

1864 Helena, Montana's capital, is founded.

1866 Jesse James' gang robs the bank in Lexington, Missouri, getting away with $2000.

1873 Birth: Francisco Madero, in Mexico, Mexican revolutionary, president (1911-13).

1880 Birth: Abram F. Joffe, Russian physicist (chrystal).

1882 Birth: William Frederick 'Bull' Halsey, Jr., US Naval Admiral who will play an instrumental role in the defeat of Japan during WW2. The Japanese surrender will be signed on his flagship, the USS Missouri. Although no military genius, Halsey is a born leader capable of inspiring men to maximum effort. His first order upon taking command of the fleet will be, '(1) Kill Japs. (2) Kill Japs. (3) Kill more Japs.'

1885 Birth: Weston Loomis; will be known as Ezra Pound, in Hailey, Idaho, American poet who will promote Imagism, a poetic movement stressing free phrase rather than forced metric. He will be imprisoned for his pro-Fascist radio broadcasts.

1888 John J. Loud patents the first ball-point pen.

1893 The Columbian Exposition closes in Chicago.

1893 Birth: Jan M. Romein, historian (Low Countries at Sea).

1894 Daniel M. Cooper of Rochester, New York patents the Time Clock. For those of you who've never had to use one, a timecard is inserted into the machine. The time clock then stamps the time on the card - to record the actual time, assuming that the clock is set correctly, employees start and end work.

1899 Boer War: On 'Mournful Monday', as the British call Monday 30 October 1899, the British suffer 1764 casualties while unsuccessfully trying to split up Republican forces. General G. White’s defeated and demoralized troops are forced to retreat to Ladysmith where they begin to dig themselves in while the Boers under General Petrus Joubert, besiege the town.

1905 Aspirin goes on sale in Britain for the first time.

1905 Tsar Nicholas II grants Russia a constitution after accepting the first Duma (Parliament). He issues the October Manisfesto, granting civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeoning support for revolution.

1910 Death: J. Henri Dunant, Swiss writer, founder Red Cross, YMCA.

1914 WW1: The Allied offensive at Ieperen, begins.

1918 WW1: British and French advances against the Austrians reach Sacile, Italy.

1918 WW1: Turkey signs an armistice with the British at Mudros, ending the war in the Middle East at noon on 31 October.

1925 In his workshop in London, Scotsman John Logie Baird, achieves the first television pictures using a dummy's head. He then persuades a 15 year old boy, William Taynton, to sit in front of the camera to become the first live person captured on TV. If you put everything into it except the kitchen sink, you'd have the TV transmitter that beamed TV to London for the first time. To build the transmitter, John Baird uses a tea chest, a biscuit box, darning needles, piano wire, motorcycle lamp lenses, old electric motors, cardboard scanning discs and glue, string and sealing wax.

1922 King Victor Emmanuel III names Benito Mussolini prime minister.

1929 It is announced that John D. Rockefeller is buying sound, common stocks to help stem the massive selloff going on at the New York Stock Exchange, but it doesn't help. More than 10.7 million shares had been dumped the previous day and the market is in a free fall. The Great Depression is on and not even a Rockefeller can stop it.

1930 A treaty of friendship between Turkey and Greece is signed at Ankara.

1933 The anti-Semitic White Shirts movement is founded in Ottawa, Canada.

1933 James G. McDonald is appointed League of Nations High Commissioner for the Relief of Refugees.

1934 The American Legion adopts a resolution condemning Nazism.

1938 Orson Welles's realistic radio adaptation of HG Wells's War of the Worlds causes panic in the US by convincing many that Martians have actually landed on Earth.

1938 Holocaust: The sixth ordinance of the Reich Citizenship Act bars all Jews from working as patent agents.

1939 Holocaust: Himmler orders that all Jews must be cleared out of the rural areas of western Poland within 3 months. In the Poznan region, 50 communities are immediately uprooted. (Atlas)

1939 Diary of Leon Gladun: Today 30 non-commissioned officers departed, but I'm still stuck here. I was mad as hell. Stefek got to go--maybe tomorrow I too will leave.

1941 WW2: The German offensive toward Moscow is halted until winter permanently hardens the ground, restoring mobility to the German tank forces.

1941 Church and Reich: Bishop Wienken informs Bishop Hilfrich of Limburg that negotiations concerning the deportations of Catholic "non-Aryans" have been started at the highest levels. (Lewy)

1941 WW2: The US destroyer Reuben James, on convoy duty off Iceland, is sunk by a German U-boat with the loss of 96 Americans...

...despite the fact that the US is not a belligerent.

1942 WW2: Hitler departs Vinnitsa.

1944 Holocaust: The last transport of Jews from Theresienstadt arrive at Auschwitz; on this day and the next, 1,689 of them are sent to the gas chambers. (Apparatus)

1945 The US government announces the end of shoe rationing.

1947 23 countries sign a GATT agreement in Geneva.

1950 Korea: The First Marine Division is ordered to replace the entire South Korean I Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area. As US Marines try to fight their way out of a Chinese trap, Korea suffers its worst winter of the century. The men who struggle there suffer accordingly.

1953 Dr. Albert Schweitzer and General George C. Marshall win Nobel Peace Prize for 1952.

1954 The US Defense Department announces the elimination of all segregated regiments.

1956 Israel captures the Egyptian military post at El-Thamad.

1961 The USSR sets off the largest nuclear explosion in history, detonating a 58 megaton bomb (2600 times the Hiroshima bomb) in an atmospheric test over the Novaya Zemla Islands.

1961 The Soviet Party Congress unanimously approves a resolution removing Joseph Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb in Red Square.

1961 Death: Luigi Einaudi, economist, first president Italy.

1967 The USSR's Kosmos 186 and 188 make first automatic docking. Also, Venera 13 is launched.

1968 The Nobel prize is awarded to Luis Alvarez (bubble chamber).

1972 Pierre Trudeau and his Liberal Party narrowly win Canada's general election.

1975 Prince Juan Carlos assumes the role of Spain's acting head of state after General Francisco Franco falls ill.

1983 The Reverend Jesse Jackson announces plans to become the first African-American to mount a full-scale campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination.

1986 Discover magazine reports that almost 43 million tons of dust settle on the United States each year.

1988 6,516 couples from the Unification Church are married in a Moonies mass marriage ceremony held in a Seoul, South Korea factory, in a service conducted by the church's Korean leader, Sun Myung Moon. They couples had all only met the day before.

1989 Socialist Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez clinches an absolute majority in the Spanish general election, winning 176 seats in the 350-seat parliament.

1990 China announces the results of a nationwide census which shows its population totaling 1.13 billion people.

1990 Workmen digging from opposite sides of the English Channel connect their tunnels during construction of rail link between England and France. This is the first time Britain had been connected to the continent since the last ice age.

1991 A Middle East peace conference begins in Madrid, Spain. The participants include Israel, Syria, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestinians from the Israeli-occupied territories.

1992 Muslim Slav, Croatian soldiers and civilians are driven from the strategic Bosnian town of Jajce in fierce street battles with Serbian forces.

1993 The UN Security Council condemns Haiti's military leaders for preventing the return of exiled President Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

1995 By a bare majority of 50.6 percent to 49.4 percent, citizens of the province of Quebec vote to remain within the federation of Canada. The referendum asks Quebec's citizens, the majority of whom are French-speakers, to vote whether their province should begin the process that could make it independent of Canada. The French were the first settlers of Canada, but in 1763 their dominions in eastern Canada fell under the control of the British. In 1867, Quebec joined Canada's English-speaking provinces in forming the autonomous Dominion of Canada. Over the next century, the English language and Anglo-America culture made steady inroads into Quebec, leading many French Canadians to fear that they were losing their language and unique culture. The Quebec independence movement was born out of this fear, gaining ground in the 1960s and leading to the establishment of a powerful separatist party, the Parti Qubcois, in 1967. In 1980, an independence referendum was defeated by a 60 percent to 40 percent margin. Far narrower than the 1980 margin, the 1995 referendum is the most serious threat to Canadian unity in the country's 128-year existence, carrying with it the possibility of losing nearly one-third of Canada's population if the Oui vote win. Quebec separatists refrain from any significant violence after their narrow defeat, but former Qubcois leader Jacques Parizeau raises the specter of racial tension by declaring that his campaign had been beaten by "money and the ethnic vote."

1996 A South African judge jails former state assassin Eugene de Kock for more than 200 years, describing him as a chilling and revolting agent for apartheid.

1996 Michael Kahoe, who ran the FBI's violent crime division, pleads guilty to obstructing justice, admitting he destroyed a report which detailed FBI misconduct in the 1992 Idaho standoff that killed outlaw Randy Weaver's wife and teenage son.

1997 Belfast lawyer Mary McAleese is elected president of Ireland.

2000 Hope It Works: A new web site is launched in the USA, to help teach children basic Physics. www.britneyspears.ac features the singer to illustrate mathematical equations. Visitors can access physics theories generously interspersed with photos of Britney.

2001 Terrorist strikes, coupled with the parade of bleak corporate news and a slew of layoff announcements since 9/11, slash October's consumer confidence to its lowest level in more than 7 years.

2001 The Federal Aviation Administration imposes flight restrictions around US nuclear plants and advises 103 nuclear facilities to fortify security.

2001 It is announced that alert warnings issued on Oct. 29 are based on information from Canadian intelligence officials.

2001 British PM Tony Blair arrives in Syria to help in Middle East peace efforts.

2001 US jets pound several areas held by the Taliban. A huge explosion north of Kabul creates a massive mushroom cloud. The Pentagon says it has small amounts of ground troops in Afghanistan to coordinate air strikes and to open lines of communication.

2001 A Manhattan hospital worker with inhalation anthrax is "struggling for survival."






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